Skin pigmentation - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Leather

color of our skin melanin determines.It is synthesized from melanocytes located in the deepest layer of the epidermis.The function of melanin - skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.But this does not mean that the more tanned people are better protected from the sun.In high doses, ultraviolet causes burns, accumulation of free radicals and DNA damage of skin pigmentation disorders, resulting in hyperpigmentation of the skin.

Leather, the same can be painted bile pigments (yellow pigment), hemosiderin, silver compounds, inks and others. But there are types of hazardous spots, which can endanger the health and even the life of a person.Generally, they include various types of melanoma.

Causes of increased skin pigmentation

• Increased pigmentation of the skin usually appears in places exposed to the sun: face, hands, neck, forearms and shoulders.
• Ultraviolet radiation plays a key role in the formation of spots on the skin.
• Process excessive pigmentation of the skin may contribute to hormonal

changes (birth control pills, hormone therapy, pregnancy).
• Acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the body.
• Photosensitizing substances present in drugs (eg antibiotics), perfumes and cosmetics (with bleaching properties without protective filters containing AHAS / BHA, retinol, alcohol, essential oils).
• Changing the color intensified with age.
• To hyperpigmentation cause metabolic disorders.

Conditions that skin pigmentation can be observed

- Freckles - small brownish spots with a diameter of 1-2 mm, which appear on the face, neck, back of the hands.As a rule, it is preceded by exposure to the sun, so they are darker in summer and winter lighter.


- Lentigo - occurs in locations subject to exposure to the sun (face, arms and the lower part of the neck).Spots characterized regular shape and uniform staining (brown to black).The diameter of from 1 mm to several centimeters, can be fused with each other.


- Moles (nevi).

diseases in which there is abnormal skin pigmentation

- Melasma (chloasma) - discoloration of the skin in the VDE irregular-shaped spots.Colour stains from light brown to dark brown in color.Most often, there is a symmetrically on the cheeks, forehead and upper lip in women aged 30-35 years, during pregnancy, when taking birth control pills.Just cause may be endocrine disorders, or liver disease.Sometimes the disease is inherited.


- Melasma Riehl - reticular hyperpigmentation on the temples, cheeks, neck, under the chin.The cause of the disease - photosensitizing agents and certain food products.
- phototoxic reaction - occurs when contact with the photosensitizer (cosmetics, herbal preparations) and subsequent irradiation UF skin.Substances that can cause reactions fototoksichesskie: dill, celery, St. John's wort, angelica, sedatives, hormones, diuretics, antibiotics.
- Melanoma - the most malignant tumor of the skin, which if left untreated can be fatal.


To which the doctor and when to seek immediate

Emergency dermatologist, medical beautician or oncologist is needed in such cases:

• Sunburn in the field of pigment spots (eg lentigines) and other defectsskin.
• If there are stains that occur during pregnancy, puberty.
• If freckles, spots or growths began to grow in size very quickly.
• Great fluctuations in color.
• Worried itching, burning.
• Bleeding or inflammation in the area of ​​increased pigmentation of the skin.
• Uneven contours or uniform color spots.
• The presence of malignant tumors in other family members (close consanguinity).
• The spots are not visible clear boundaries separating them from the other skin.
• Strange color (pink, brown or black).
• diameter of 5 - 15 mm.
• Routine inspections in the presence of spots on the skin (if nothing disturbs) 1 once a year.

Symptomatic treatment of pigmentation

Treatment begins with a dermatologist inspection spots Wood's lamp.Sometimes stains can not be removed completely, it is possible just to clarify and make them less noticeable.Depending on the type of stain doctor may recommend:

application of bleaching agents.The best known:

- hydroquinone in a concentration of from 1.5 to 8% (arbutin, erikolin, arbutozid - ointments, alcoholic solutions).Bleaches initially appearance spots.The visible result is achieved in a few weeks.Side Effect - discoloration of the skin around the spot.
- Retinoids (tretinoin cream, synthetic vitamin A, Accutane, Retin -A) - analogues of vitamin A. The course of treatment lasts up to 3 months.
- Azelaic acid (15-20% skinoren, azelik) - removes minor inflammation and hyperpigmentation, and eliminates acne.Frequent use can cause redness and burning of the skin.
- Kojic acid (1-4% of the same name) - is not toxic, marked peeling property, suppressing the formation of melanin.
- Vitamin C (not less than 5%)
- Corticosteroids (prednisone, hydrocortisone ointment, gel) - has a strong anti-inflammatory action, reduce the activity of melanocytes.Well combined with bleaching agents.

Chemical Peels - the purpose of the procedure is that it would improve the appearance of the face, neck and hands clean and smooth the skin and restore its color.Chemical peeling includes acid (glycolic or trichloroacetic kojic), which has controlled a damaging effect on the skin.Peeling can remove wrinkles, bleaches excessive pigmentation, removes small scars from acne.

Dermabrasion (a deep mechanical exfoliation) - exfoliation produced by the action of tiny particles.This mechanical abrasion of the upper layers of the epidermis and dermis.Treatment is carried out by a special electric device with vraschayuschimya drive - brush.The procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia, depending on the skin surface area.After the procedure, make the dressing.Restoring the skin takes a few weeks.Treatment indicated in the case of the removal of acne scars, marks, after smallpox, some post-traumatic scars, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, tattoos.

Microdermabrasion - mechanical removal of the stratum corneum using abrasive wheels.

Cryotherapy - freezing the spots with liquid nitrogen, and then the removal of dead skin.The method is very effective, but sometimes scars.

Laser treatment - skin pigment melanin absorbs light energy from the laser and thus consumed.

High Technology - include drugs for skin ultraosvetleniya (creams, serum, mask).Composed of special agents from hyperpigmentation, which inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase, and thus blocking the formation of melanoblast, destroying excess melanin.

- Masks of colloidal gold (gold mask) - restore correct operation of the melanocytes.The treatment is very effective, but it costs about $ 1,000 per procedure, and in order to get the desired effect you need several of these procedures.
- Lighting formulations of resveratrol - Regenerating the skin, effectively dissolve stains output of melanin cells.Minus method - does not prevent the formation of melanin.

Phytotherapy and home methods for treating pigmentation

- juice or puree of pineapple - the substance contains bromelain (an enzyme that dissolves the melanocytes) and fruit acids.

- Juice of citrus - has a strong bleaching and peeling property.

- The infusion of lemon skin - contains essential oils and fruit acids.Good whitens and moisturizes the skin.

- Puree papaya - contains large amounts of vitamin A, improves the protective properties of the skin.

- Raspberry juice - bleaching properties, vitamin therapy.

- Whitening Lotion: Cut the cucumber into slices with peel and put in milk buttermilk.The infusion will be ready in 3 hours.Wipe the face with a cotton swab dipped in tincture.

- Decoction of spots: grind in a coffee grinder or blender a few flowers mother and stepmother, and knotweed grass rue in equal proportions.Spoon the mixture pour a glass of water and cook for 5 minutes.Broth to wipe the face several times a day.

- Clarifying peeling - mask: Mix a glass of chamomile and a glass of yogurt.Then add a solution of milk powder to condition thick.The mask is applied to the face, wash off after 20 minutes.

- Wine Lightening Tonic: 2 tbsp of nettle mixed with a spoonful of grated horseradish and pour a bottle of white wine.Cover tightly, and let stand for 14 days.The resulting tonic need to use 2 times a day.

- Whitening Mask №1: 3 tablespoons of potato flour mix with a spoon of lemon juice and a tablespoon of yogurt.Apply on the face.Wash off after 10 minutes.

- Whitening Mask №2: squeeze the juice from fresh leaves of lettuce or spinach and mix it with honey (3 to 1).Apply to the skin with a brush or cotton swab and rinse completely dry field.Note!This mask is not suitable for people with a translucent or dilated capillaries.

- Whitening Mask №4: gruel of grated celery mix with a spoon of natural cheese average fat content, apply on face for 15 minutes and rinse.

- Whitening Mask №5: approximately 150 g of immature berries currant mash with a fork and add 1 tablespoon of warm (not hot!) Honey.You can dilute the juice of a lemon.Apply to skin and wash 30 minutes.

Remember that natural ingredients are potent allergens.Before using a mask, you need to make a trial test on the inside of the forearm.Then, to evaluate changes in the skin.

Always choose fresh foods, their excess leave for tomorrow, because they lose their properties.

to wash or better than bottled mineral water.

doctor cosmetologist Kondratenko NA