Pain - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Common Symptoms

Pain - is a signal that the organism something is not right.This signal should be taken seriously and find out the true cause of the pain.

Feeling pain occurs during stimulation of the sensory nerve endings, which is a huge amount in the skin and other body parts.These pain receptors recognize a variety of different stimuli, such as heat, pressure or tension;different and can be caused by a reaction to them.Each person perceives pain differently, and psychological factors exacerbate this perception.In general, the pain - it is an alarm signal that the body is in danger, receives an excessive load or ill.

If you have a pain

  • pain - this alarm signal from our body.Think of this signal seriously and try to eliminate the cause of the cause pain.
  • Pain medications can help reduce the symptoms of pain, but did not eliminate its cause.
  • Since pain is not treated, can become chronic, it should be treated.
  • If pain persists, see your doctor.The doctor should be examined and, if you can not determine the exac
    t location of severe pain, or you have any other complaints in addition to pain.
  • have analgesic medications may have different side effects, especially if used for a long time.Talk to your doctor or physical therapist about the safe use of these medicines.
  • Pregnant and nursing child-feeding women should not take pain medication.Many of them can cause severe disturbances in children.In small doses they can make infants and young children (for more information please contact your doctor or pharmacist).

Determination, transmission and perception of pain

To better understand what pain is, consider how our body perceives pain signal and how that information is passed on and processed.

Nerve cells receive and transmit signals.Each nerve cell is a part, with the help of which it receives a signal and passes it on.Short branches of nerve cells called dendrites, they get incentives.At the free end of the stimulation of the nerve an electric signal, which is passed on through the nerve cell to the axon.Axon - a long process of the nerve, often covered by a myelin sheath.The myelin sheath speeds up the transmission of the electrical signal.Axon operates on the principle of one-way road, and the signal goes through it in only one direction - towards the end of the transmitted signal.At the end of the nerve synapses are arranged, which provide for signaling other nerve and muscle cells.

The synapse electrical signal stimulates the release and the release of substances in the synaptic cleft, called neurotransmitters.Neurotransmitters fall receptors located on a number of nerve cells and cause opening of ion channels.Ion channels - a small hole through which certain particles can navigate.Charged atoms or ions called fall through these channels in the cell.They have an electric charge, which causes the formation of an appropriate electrical potential and the electrical signal transmission.

When the signal reaches the spinal cord, it is passed on to the brain.First, the signal enters the brain region known as the "thalamus", and then - to the sensitive areas of the cerebral cortex.Here the signal is converted to the feeling of pain.The type and intensity of the signal is determined whether it is perceived as pain, a simple touch or will not be perceived at all.The signal in the spinal cord can cause reflex.In this case, the signal is passed on to the nerve cells called motor neurons that cause muscles to contract.This allows us to react to pain even before analysis determined by what kind of feeling.

example, by touching a hot surface, we otdёrgivaem her, even before he could see that the surface is hot.

The brain continuously receives a huge amount of information from all the sensors are in the body.Much of this information is eliminated and does not reach consciousness.Only in this way we can concentrate on the important in each situation things.

If during a certain time to wear shoes and not to concentrate on the sensations, gradually cease to notice them.But if the shoes are uncomfortable and cause pain, it becomes difficult to pay attention to something else.

Types

pain Pain can be of varying intensity and cause a variety of sensations - from tingling to burning and pulsation.If the patient is able to determine the source of the pain and to describe its view, establish its cause much easier.

Types of pain depending on the location:

Somatic pain comes from the skin, muscles, joints, bones and connective tissues.
Source visceral pain - the internal organs, such as their strength, cramping, or inflammation.
Neuropathic pain occurs when there is excessive irritation or damage to the nerve cells.

Acute and chronic pain

Acute pain lasts for a limited period of time and may pass quickly, so it is easier to move, even if it is harder
Chronic pain can be either long-term (back pain, the pain. Caused by a tumor), or oftenrepeated (migraine, angina).Chronic pain is difficult to carry

Psychological pain

Not all types of pain occur due to irritation of pain receptors.Pain may also be a manifestation of psychological disorders.This pain is not imaginary, it is a real pain signal.

Painful memory

In the absence of adequate treatment of pain signal continues to flow and may cause irreversible changes in the nerve fibers.Nerves become too sensitive, and even a tiny touch or change in temperature gives rise to the feeling of pain.Thus, acute pain can be treated easily and hardly can become chronic.

pain is closely related to the individual threshold of pain perception.Each person reacts differently to pain.On the threshold of pain is also influenced by the specific situation, such as fear intensifies pain perception and concentration on any other subject it softens.

Pain intensity

intensity of pain can not be measured, because each of us has his own threshold of pain perception.Therefore, to estimate the intensity of pain using various profiles.

The easiest way to measure pain - a visual analogue scale.The patient is asked to describe the pain intensity by selecting the appropriate number of points from 0 to 10, where 0 - "no pain" and 10 - "unbearable pain".This scale is often complements the more detailed description of pain levels or pictograms.For young children with this scale using a chart with different expressions baby face that convey shades of pain

Description of pain intensity using words

0 Pain missing 2 Light pain 4 Mild pain 6 Mild pain 8 Severe pain 10 Unbearable pain

Scalepersons Wong-Baker scale

pain tolerance

0 2 pain pain is not possible to ignore the 4 interfere with activities 6 8 Prevents concentrate Prevents the basic needs of 10 is required bed rest

The other questionnaire included questions about the localization of the pain and the exact description of the sensations.The exact description of the pain helps in diagnosis.there is need for a more detailed analysis of individual situations and cases of diseases.There are several kinds of standard profiles, which help to establish the severity of the disease and its impact on quality of life.Patients were asked whether they are able to cope with daily activities such as dressing, washing facilities, etc.

With the help of modern techniques you can watch the activity of different brain regions and determine the level of activity of the nerve cells, but there is no method by which you can determine how the patient feels bad because of the perceived pain.

pain and inflammation

Pain and inflammation are often closely linked and can form a vicious circle as inflammation increases pain and pain stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators.

To understand how the pain and inflammation associated with each other, consider the following example.Touching a sharp object, such as a needle or blade, causing an instinctive reaction of the body: the hand otdёrgivaetsya on the subject even before we were subjected to the conscious situation analysis.Immediately after that, we feel a sharp pain.The reaction of the organism depends on the severity of the injury.The heartbeat quickens, and the body is mobilized for action in a dangerous situation.Initial pain diminishes in a few minutes or hours.The next day at the wound site can be seen to change: it is sometimes hot and flushed.Changed and the feeling of pain: acute pain gave way to diffuse.In addition, even a slight touch of the intact, reddened skin near the wound may be painful.

reason for these changes - the beginning of the inflammatory process.Pain resulting from injury stimulates the surrounding tissue where inflammatory mediators are produced, which in turn cause dilation of small blood vessels.It receives more blood tissues, which explains their redness and a burning sensation.Inflammatory mediators are also increasing the sensitivity of nerve cells, so that even a soft touch, which under normal circumstances would not be delivered discomfort at the site of painful injury.

Pain provokes inflammation and inflammation increases the intensity of the pain, so it is often the treatment of pain and inflammation treatment - are two sides of the same coin.

Pain

pain may be the result of various factors and is manifested with different intensity, so there is no single optimal method for the treatment of all cases of pain, to the same reaction to the treatment of each patient individually.Because of this treatment is to be specific.The main objective - to eliminate the cause of the pain.

Remedies for Pain:

mild and moderate action

Paracetamol
NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen)
Metamiazol

Potent

Tramadol
Light opioids
Strong opioids
Top

Medicinal pain therapy

depending on the intensity of the pain or its localization using various drugs or group of medications.To relieve acute pain often used primarily to formulations containing paracetamol.Paracetamol does not have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, it spares the stomach, but can cause serious disturbances in the liver activity.Patients with liver problems should consult their physician before taking these medicines.

use of alcohol in conjunction with paracetamol can be very dangerous and even fatal.

The group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include a variety of different means.The most widely used drugs include diclofenac, ibuprofen or naproxen.All NSAIDs reduce pain and inflammation.NSAIDs may damage the stomach or intestines and even cause bleeding.Patients suffering from gastric ulcer, should consult with your doctor before using these medicines.

Acetylsalicylate (Aspirin®) - is a special representative of the group of NSAIDs as it reduces blood clotting.In order to reduce blood clotting, it is given in small doses to patients who have had a heart attack or stroke, or patients with a high risk of cardiovascular complications.Side effects of the drug, which, moreover, can cause problems with the stomach, is in this case the desired effect.In therapy, acetylsalicylic acid is often replaced by other NSAIDs, has a lower risk of gastrointestinal side effects.

Metamiazol - is a powerful NSAID which provide patients with severe pain.But it can cause blood problems such as reduction in the number of white blood cells and red blood cells.Because of this additional risk the physician must weigh the benefits of therapy and risks of using this medication.Metamiazol can be used only when the patient was discharged.

Tramadol - a weak opioid with a pronounced effect, which in rare cases, cause breathing problems.But he has, and most of the side effects of opioids, for example, can have a calming effect and determine the appearance of dizziness and nausea.Patients taking medicines containing tramadol, forbidden to drive a car and operate machinery.Also, like all opioids, tramadol can cause dependence and tolerance (reduction effect over the desired time).Tramadol is used in cases where the rest of the NSAIDs were not effective, and it can be used only on prescription.

All light and strong opioids have similar side effects they cause dependence and tolerance.Opioids impair nerve signal transmission function from one nerve cell to another, but at the same time break and the transfer of other signals between nerve cells.For opioids is characterized by life-threatening side effects such as depression of the respiratory function and decrease gastrointestinal activity.Opioids - a substance, which is strictly controlled circulation and are used only in special cases, for example, to facilitate postoperative swelling or pain caused.Antiepileptic drugs and vitamin more effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain than classical painkillers.

Attention!

drug that works wonders with your neighbor, do not necessarily help you.It can even be dangerous, because you have other risk factors.Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you decide to change the way of dealing with pain.

Simultaneous use of multiple medications may increase the risk of side effects.Do not change your therapy alone and do not take medicines that are stored in your home or that you have purchased without first consulting with your doctor or pharmacist.

Drug-free treatment of pain

Receptions non-drug treatment may be used alone or in conjunction with medication.Just as in the case of drug therapy, the patient responds to each different methods in different ways.Your doctor may recommend different types of therapy, but their effects can only be estimated by the patient.To see which method is most effective, it is worth to try several techniques.

Physiotherapy helps in the treatment of the causes of pain, because the muscles are trained and improved range of motion.Physiotherapy (massage, warming, cooling) helps to relax, so it is recommended to decrease painful symptoms.

Underlying electrotherapy feature is the transmission of nerve signals like electric.Targeted electrical stimulation helps to balance the pain signal transmission system.

methods such as hypnosis, biofeedback and relaxation alter the perception of pain in patients with chronic pain and help improve quality of life.

effectiveness of any treatment, with or without medications, may best estimate by the patient.Everyone has individual needs and desires, which should be discussed with your doctor.It will be advisable to try another kind of treatment, if currently in use does not bring the desired relief.List therapies listed here is not exhaustive.Perhaps your doctor will suggest other alternatives.

How can I avoid unwanted side effects?

Each medicament having any effect, and may cause side effects.The physician carefully evaluate the possible risks and benefits of therapy, to reduce undesirable side effects to a minimum.

choosing to treat the patient any certain medication, the doctor does not think only about the maximum efficiency, but also the possible side effects.The physician should always weigh the desired effects and risks.The risk of adverse events is equally great in all patients, and depends on the disease, age, sex, and other medications taken by other risk factors.