Sleep Disorders - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
insomnia, or insomnia - is a disorder associated with the occurrence of difficulties maintaining sleep, or when a person is experiencing hypersomnia increased need for sleep.Violation of sleep rhythm is manifested in a shift of the time falling asleep or falling asleep during the day and sleep disturbances at night.
classification of sleep disorders:
- insomnia - sleep disorders, and the ability to remain in a state of sleep.
- hypersomnia - destruction, accompanied by pathological sleepiness.
- Parasomnias - functional disorders associated with sleep, sleep phases and incomplete awakening (in sleep walking, night terrors and anxiety dreams, enuresis, nocturnal seizures).
- Situational (psychosomatic) insomnia - insomnia lasts less than 3 weeks and has, as a rule, the emotional nature.
Also depending on the disorders of sleep pathology process is divided into the following groups:
• Difficulties sleep onset (presomnicheskie violations).Such patients are afraid of occurrence of insomnia, which took
• Frequent nocturnal awakenings, after which it is difficult to fall asleep and "superficial" sleep pathology characteristic of sleep disorders process.This is called intrasomniyami.Such a person can awaken the slightest noise, frightening dreams, increased motor activity, desires in a toilet.These factors affect all, but in patients with hypersensitivity to it, and subsequent difficulties with falling asleep.
• Anxiety upon waking (postsomnicheskie disorder) - it is a problem with early morning awakening final, "weakness", reduced performance in the morning, daytime sleepiness.
• A separate line in the sleep disturbance is "sleep apnea" syndrome.This situation periodically during sleep slow breathing until it stops (apnea) at different time intervals.Patients suffering they have a significant risk of premature death due to the stoppage of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems."Apnea" syndrome manifests itself as a collection of symptoms including high blood pressure, headache in the morning, reduced potency, reduction in intelligence, personality change, obesity, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep during heavy snoring and increased physical activity.
Causes of sleep disorders
This syndrome is often associated with neurological and psychiatric diseases, they mutually reinforce each other.
Insomnia officially consider sleep disorders during the month for at least three times a week.The main cause of insomnia are the current psychological problems, such as chronic stress, nervosa, depression and others.
It also may include mental fatigue, which manifests itself as fatigue at low loads, sleepiness during the day, but the inability to fall asleep at night, weakness, lethargy.
Factors that negatively affect sleep, are: the use of caffeinated beverages (coffee, tea, cola, energy), abundant fatty foods before bedtime, alcohol consumption and smoking, intense exercise before bedtime.
diseases caused by sleep disturbance
Insomnia - the inevitable companion of various diseases.With which diseases occur Insomnia:
- Heart failure
- Side effects of medicines
- Renal failure
- restless leg syndrome
- Parkinson's Disease
Almostalways mental illness combined with it - chronic stress, nervosa, depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, psychoses.
When cerebral stroke during descent stroke can even affect negatively on the prognosis of the disease, and not only in regard to the day and night, but also from the perspective of sleep and wakefulness.
migraine disadvantage, as excess sleep can have the character of a provoking factor.Some headaches may begin in a dream.On the other hand, at the end of a migraine attack the patient typically sleeps.
insomnia can also disturb anyone with pain or other physical anxiety.For example, arthritis and arthrosis, osteochondrosis, injuries.
Sleep disorders occur in multiple sclerosis, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency (insufficient flow of blood to the vessels on the spine to the brain), along with dizziness, episodes of loss of consciousness, headache, decrease in mental and physical performance, and memory.
Hormonal changes in the body is also a negative impact on sleep.Insomnia bothers women during pregnancy and breastfeeding, when the woman is particularly sensitive to outside stimuli.In menopause make your bit so-called prilivy- episodes of heat and sweating, regardless of the environment.In the selection of the treatment together with the doctor gynecologist is a condition can be significantly alleviated.
When the function of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) insomnia - one of the characteristic symptoms.Also, patients note a progressive weight loss with increased appetite, increased blood pressure and heart rate, weakness, irritability, accelerated speech, anxiety and fear.In addition, there exophthalmos (displacement of the eyeball forward, sometimes combined with partial shielding his eyelids).
Usually after the selection of treatment by an endocrinologist doctor manages to alleviate this condition.
atherosclerosis of the lower extremities, especially in the advanced stage, is quite a serious problem.In this disease, the patient experiences pain in the leg muscles when they are horizontally or when driving.These pains are forced to stop walking and lower legs from the bed that brings relief.This condition is caused by insufficient blood flow to the leg muscles due to blockage of blood vessels with atherosclerotic plaques.When the blood flow reaches the minimum critical value, death of tissue may occur due to lack of power.It is worth noting that this condition is most often seen in male smokers who have atherosclerotic process is ten times faster than non-smokers.
Bronchial asthma attack period also characterized by impaired sleep.Suffice it to note that asthma attacks occur in the early morning hours and are accompanied by fits of coughing, shortness of breath and a feeling of lack of air.This condition is usually compounded during colds or acute allergies.Besides, the preparations for the relief of an asthma attack and long-term treatment of asthma have some stimulating effect on the organism.Such patients are referred to a doctor pulmonologist with the purpose of selection of adequate therapy and decrease in seizure frequency.
In renal insufficiency, insomnia usually attracts attention at a late stage in the reduction of the protective capacity of the organism (decompensation).Renal failure in most cases develops gradually, over the years and is gradually but steadily progressive (increasing) decrease in renal function by removal of toxins from the body.Therefore, they accumulate in the blood, poisoning the body (uremia roughly translated - urine in the blood) it is accompanied by symptoms such as dry and pale skin with an earthy shade, swing ammonia from the mouth and on the skin, confusion, lethargy, skin itching and minor hemorrhageunder the skin for no apparent reason.There is also a weight loss, lack of appetite, aversion to even produktam- protein sources.The patient is first marked increase in the amount of urine, as a defensive reaction to the lack of kidney function, and then the progressive reduction of its amount.Such patients need constant monitoring in specialist-nephrologist.
In heart failure and hypertension (increased blood pressure), insomnia can be observed in chronic process, together with shortness of breath on exertion, headache, fatigue, weakness, palpitations, dizziness when getting up from a horizontal to vertical position (orthopnea)decrease in mental activity.Besides, one of the drugs for treatment of heart disease are diuretics.When performing the wrong physician recommendations for their reception, they can be delivered to patients in the form of anxiety frequent urge to the bathroom at night, which is not conducive to sound sleep.
sleep disorders sleep disorders should first see a doctor or therapist neurologist.After his inspection, perhaps, you will be offered to consult a doctor - a specialist a sleep - a sleep.
From instrumental methods of physical examination remains the most significant cardiorespiratory polysomnography with monitoring.In this survey during sleep using special sensors sensors produced record, and then analyze the information on the EEG (electroencephalogram), EOG (electrooculography), EMG (electromyography), electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, blood oxygen saturation.
This study allows us to estimate the ratio of the sleep cycle, the order of their change, the impact of other factors on sleep and sleep on the other organs and their functions.
Unfortunately, not always the doctor has the opportunity to spend a patient polysomnography.Then you have to rely on survey and examination data.But it is at a sufficient qualification psychotherapist doctor allows you to assign the correct treatment.
Treatment of sleep disorders
insomnia treatment involves many factors:
1) Sleep hygiene is very important.Try to go to bed in a familiar environment for you, in a comfortable bed, close the curtains, eliminate harsh sounds and smells.Go to sleep at the same time, even on the weekends.Before going to bed, ventilate the room, take a short hike, take a warm relaxing bath, read a book at night light.
2) rational work and rest also helps normalize sleep.Many people know that the quality of sleep at different times of the day differently.Recuperation, mental and physical, is much more effective than in the period from 22 to 4 hours, and towards morning, when the dawn is nearing, sleep already rather weak.
3) Reception vegetable sedatives (valerian extract, Persia, New Pass)
4) Only a doctor to assess the overall condition of the patient, find out the cause of insomnia, may appoint a drug that will not hurt you.Even the designated physician medication should not be taken longer than prescribed period - virtually all drugs with hypnotic effect can be addictive and dependency akin to drug.Older patients are usually prescribed a half dose of sleeping pills.
5) When dissatisfaction subjective sleep quality, sleep duration but the objective for 6 hours or more, sleeping pills are not assigned.In this case, the need psychotherapy.
6) is another factor influencing the human sleep - circadian rhythm, which is called the basic cycle of rest - activity.It is equal to one and a half hours.The bottom line is that we can not always sleep when we wanted.Every hour and a half for a few minutes so we have the opportunity - we feel some drowsiness, and in the late afternoon drowsiness increases.But if you do not take advantage of this time, it will have to wait more than an hour - before sleep still does not work.
consequences of sleep disorders
Insomnia can be the first sign of the disease, of a neurosis, depression, chronic stress.As well as aggravating and reduce efficiency, social inclusion and quality of life of the patient with any disease.So do not underestimate the insomnia and the more self-medicate.Consult a qualified technician.
the way physicians treat sleep disorders.
primarily need advice neurologist and psychotherapist.You may need to help these professionals:
therapists Moskvina AM