Weight loss , emaciation - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Common Symptoms

Weight Loss (emaciation) - a frequent sign of illness.Drastic weight loss is called exhaustion and cachexia (the latter term is more often used to refer to extreme exhaustion).Moderate weight loss may not be the only symptom of the disease, but also the variant of the norm, due to the constitutional characteristics of the organism, for example, in patients with asthenic body type.

The basis of weight loss may be insufficient or inadequate diet, malabsorption of food, increased decay of the body's proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and increased energy consumption (due to the exogenous and endogenous).Often, these mechanisms are combined.In various diseases the time of occurrence, severity and specific mechanisms for reducing body weight are significantly different.

Causes weights

loss to weight loss can lead to both external factors (restricting food intake, trauma, infection) and internal (metabolic disorders, digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body).

reasons mechanisms able
Restricting Reception food Confusion Traumatic brain injuries, strokes.
Violation of swallowing tumors, narrowing of the esophagus, larynx.
Decreased appetite Anorexia nervosa, intoxication.
Indigestion Disturbance of the digestion of proteins, fats Atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, pancreatitis, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis
nutrients Malabsorption Celiac disease, enteritis, colitis.
errors of metabolism (metabolism) predominance of processes of destruction (catabolism) of the synthesis process Serious injuries, burns, cancer, endocrine pathology, connective tissue disease.

With which diseases occur weight loss:

- Prolonged emotional stress (loss of appetite)
- Acute and chronic infections and parasitic diseases (intestinal infection, tuberculosis, syphilis, malaria, amoebiasis, helminth infections, HIV infection)
- gastrointestinal diseases (stricture of the esophagus, scar pyloric stenosis, malabsorption syndrome, chronic enterocolitis, liver cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis)
- Eating disorders (bulimia nervosa, anorexia)
- cancer

in any malignancies in the body of patients with a tumor takescellular metabolites (glucose, lipids, vitamins), which leads to disruption of biochemical processes, there is depletion of internal resources and develops cachexia (wasting).It is characterized by severe weakness, reduced work capacity and the possibility of daily tasks, reduced or lack of appetite.Many cancer patients is cancer cachexia is the immediate cause of death.

Weight loss - as the leading symptom is characteristic of certain endocrine diseases (hyperthyroidism, hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus type 1).Under these conditions there is an infringement production of various hormones, which leads to a serious breakdown of the metabolic processes in the body.

thyrotoxicosis - a syndrome, which includes conditions caused by the increase of thyroid hormones in the blood.In the body, there is an increased decay processes of protein and glycogen, reduces their content in the heart, liver and muscles.It is manifested by general weakness, tearfulness, mood instability.Worry heart attacks, arrhythmias, sweating, tremor of the hands.An important symptom is weight loss when stored appetite.It occurs in diffuse toxic goiter, toxic adenoma, early stage of autoimmune thyroiditis.

hypopituitarism - a syndrome that develops due to inadequate secretion of anterior pituitary hormones.It occurs when the pituitary gland tumors, infectious diseases (meningoentsifality).Manifested by progressive weight loss (up to 8 kg per month) with the development of wasting (cachexia), expressed general weakness, dry skin, apathy, decreased muscle tone, faintness.

Type 1 diabetes - a disease caused by absolute insulin deficiency resulting from the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, which leads to disruption of all types of metabolism and primarily carbohydrate metabolism (there is an increase in blood glucose and recovering it from the urine).The debut of the disease occurs in childhood and adolescence, and progresses rapidly.The most common symptoms of the disease - this thirst, frequent urination, dry and itchy skin, progressive weight loss despite increased appetite, abdominal pain.

intoxication syndrome is typical for infectious diseases, tuberculosis, helminthiasis.The causative agent of the disease, penetrating into the human organism produces toxins that have a damaging effect on cell structure, disrupt the immune regulation function disorder and occurs in various organs and systems.It is manifested febrile or low grade fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, increased sweating, weakness.Substantial weight loss is characteristic of the current long-term, chronic infections.

Tuberculosis - an infectious disease, which is the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is characterized by the formation of specific granulomas in various organs and tissues.The most common form of tuberculosis - pulmonary tuberculosis, for which in addition to intoxication syndrome is characterized by dry cough or sputum, shortness of breath, chest pain associated with breathing, hemoptysis, pulmonary hemorrhage.

Helminthiases - human parasitic diseases caused by various representatives of the lower worms - worms.They emit toxic substances that cause intoxication and violating the processes of digestion.

For helminth infections characterized by a gradual progression of the disease, weakness, abdominal pain associated with food intake, weight loss while maintaining appetite, itching, allergic rashes, hives on the type.

Significant loss of body weight, up to cachexia, not connected with the power features as a result of immune disorders, characteristic of connective tissue disease - systemic scleroderma and polyarteritis nodosa.

Systemic scleroderma manifests lesions of the skin and hands as "dense" edema, shortening and deformity of the fingers, pain and a feeling of stiffness in the muscles, visceral.

For nodular polyarteritis characteristic changes in the skin -, intense pain in the calf muscles, increased blood pressure marbling limbs and trunk.

Reducing body weight is characteristic for the majority of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.Acute or chronic inflammation leads to a metabolic change in the direction of catabolism (breakdown), increases the body's need for energy, disrupts the absorption and digestion of food.To reduce the pain in the abdomen, patients themselves often limit food intake.A dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) lead to loss of protein, minerals, electrolytes, which leads to disruption of the delivery of nutrients to the tissues.

malnutrition - a disease that occurs due to prolonged malnutrition and starvation in the absence of organic disease, which could be the cause of weight loss.It is characterized by progressive weight loss.There are 2 forms: cachectic (dry) and edematous.In the initial stages, it shows increased appetite, thirst, severe weakness.Is a violation of water-electrolyte metabolism, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).Then weakness increases, patients lose the ability to care for themselves, and develops hungry (alimentary-dystrophic) coma.The causes of the disease: social catastrophes (famine), mental illness, anorexia nervosa (refusal to take food out of a desire to lose weight).

survey with weight loss

to identify weight loss determination is performed somatometric indicators.These include: the dynamics of weight loss, body mass index by Quetelet (body weight, kg / m² growth), arm circumference (in the middle third of the arm broken arm).

Indicators Norma Malnutrition easy Malnutrition Moderate Malnutrition heavy
Weight loss (% of original) 0-2 2-5 5-10 & gt; 10
body mass index (kg / m²) 26-19 19-17,5 17,5-15,5 & lt; 15,5
shoulder circumference (cm)
in
men women

29-26
23-20

28,25
22,5-19,5

26-23
& lt; 20

25-22,5
& lt; 19,5

using laboratory parameters determine the severity of weight loss, the possible causes.The general analysis of blood reveal inflammation, anemia.In the analysis of blood glucose define diabetes.The level of TSH hormone (TSH), T3 and T4 (thyroid hormones) - examined to assess thyroid function.Biochemical parameters of blood: liver function tests (liver function evaluation), creatinine (detection of kidney failure), elektorolity.Proteinogramma and acute phase proteins - examined to assess the degree of protein malnutrition and determine the inflammatory process.Revmoproby - to identify connective tissue diseases, immunodeficiency states.Fecal helminth eggs.According to the testimony determine specific antibodies to infectious agents, HIV -infektsii, tumor markers, markers of TB.Also carry out research of the gastrointestinal tract: fibroezofagogastroduodenoskopiyu, colonoscopy, ultrasound of the abdomen.Chest X-ray - to detect inflammation, tuberculosis, cancer pathology.

In identifying the appropriate disease should consult a specialist: infectious disease, rheumatology, TB doctor, oncologist, endocrinologist, gastroenterologist.

With the exclusion of organic pathology and confirmation of the diagnosis of "anorexia nervosa" needs psychiatric examination.

weight loss treatment

weight loss treatment should start as soon as possible, preventing the development of severe malnutrition, which is difficult to treat, until stabilization of clinical and laboratory parameters and somatometric.First of all, you need to adjust the power.It should be fractional 6-8 times a day, balanced, contain an increased amount of protein, vitamins, have sufficient energy value in conjunction with pharmaceuticals, improving digestion and absorption of food.It is necessary to limit the coarse fiber, excluded roasted, salted, pickled foods, alcohol, hot spices.In case of violation of consciousness, severe nausea, vomiting, enteral nutrition (through a tube) or parenteral (intravenous) special nutrient mixture.

By the way physicians treat when there is weight loss:

changes occurring in the body during weight loss, causing serious violations of the digestive system, metabolism, weaken immune defenses, causing disruption of the endocrine glands, so at the first sign of symptoms is an urgent needconsult your GP (general practitioner, pediatrician, family doctor).

may also need to consult doctors:

- Endocrinologist
- Oncologist
- Gastroenterologist
- Psychologist
- Infektsionist