Signs of Diabetes - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
diabetes - a chronic endocrine disease.The main metabolic manifestation of diabetes is elevated levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.Glucose - the energy source for all cells in the body.However, in high concentrations it becomes a substance toxic properties.Diabetes leads to vascular damage, neural tissue and other organ systems.Develop complications - neuropathy, cataract, nephropathy, retinopathy, and a number of other states.Manifestations of diabetes associated with a high level of glucose in the blood and the development of late complications of the disease.
Early signs of diabetes
first signs of diabetes is usually associated with elevated levels of blood sugar.Normally the rate of capillary blood fasting does not exceed 5.5 mmol / l, and during the day - 7.8 mmol / l.If the average blood sugar level becomes more 9-13 mmol / L, the patient's first complaints may arise.
first appears profuse and frequent urination .The amount of urine for 24 hours is always greater than 2 liters.In addition
body loses fluid, dehydration can develop .The skin on the face, the body becomes dry, it lost its elasticity;"Dry" mouth, the patient feels a lack of saliva, "dry" mouth.Typically, patients feel very thirsty.I'm thirsty all the time, including at night.Sometimes the volume of liquid exceeds drunk and 3, and 4, and even 5 liters per day.Taste preferences of all people are different.Unfortunately, many sick with diabetes, but do not know about the diagnosis, drink fruit juices, soft drinks, carbonated water, thus aggravating their condition.Thirst - a protective reaction in a given situation.Of course, you can not give up drinking in order to reduce the amount of urine.But better to drink pure water or unsweetened tea.
Glucose accumulates in the blood, urine leaves, but can not get into the cells.So tissues do not receive the necessary energy to them.Because of this, the cells in the brain send information about hunger and lack of nutrients.As a result, the patient diabetes can dramatically increase appetite, he eats and eats even a large amount of food.
Thus, the first and only specific symptoms of diabetes are considered to thirst, dry skin, dry mouth, increased appetite, a large volume of urine per day.
high blood glucose levels, increased breakdown of fat tissue and dehydration in diabetes adversely affect the brain.As a result, there is another group of early, but not specific signs of diabetes.It tiredness, fatigue, irritability, frequent mood swings, inability to concentrate, decreased disability.All these symptoms in diabetes appear early in the disease, but they can also be in any other diseases too.For the diagnosis of diabetes, the importance of these small signs.
For diabetes is typical not only an increase in blood glucose levels.Another important feature is the large amplitude oscillations sugar concentration in blood .Since a healthy person minimum and maximum value of blood sugar per day differ less than 2.1 units.Diabetes patient in the same day can be sugar and 3 mmol / l and 15 mmol / l.Sometimes the difference between the values even more.An early sign of diabetes, associated with a sharp change in the blood sugar concentration can be considered as a temporary blurred vision .Blurred vision may continue for a few minutes, hours or days, and then restored normal visual view.
Signs of diabetes associated with damage to organs and systems
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 disease are often long runs unnoticed.Patients have no complaints or do not pay attention to them.Unfortunately, sometimes the early symptoms of diabetes is left unattended and health care workers.As a result, the first clear signs of the disease can become persistent signs of damage organs and tissues, that is, late complications of diabetes.
Who can suspect the disease?For those who have signs of damage symmetric sensory nerves of the hands or feet, legs .In this situation, the patient will disturb numbness and coldness in the fingers, feeling of "pins and needles", a decrease in sensitivity, muscle cramps.Especially characteristic manifestation of these symptoms alone, at night.With the presence of damage to the nervous tissue and is associated emergence of yet another complication - diabetic foot syndrome.
Diabetic foot, requiring medical treatment
This condition manifests nonhealing wounds, ulcers, fissures on the feet.Unfortunately, sometimes the surgeon will diagnose diabetes for the first time in a patient with such symptoms.The syndrome is often the cause gangrene and amputation.
steady decline of can also be seen the first sign of diabetes due to cataract or diabetic vascular lesions of the fundus.
It should be noted that in the context of diabetes reduced immunity .This means that long to heal wounds, scratches, more often infectious processes and complications.Any disease is more severe: cystitis complicated by inflammation of the renal pelvis, colds - bronchitis or pneumonia.Fungal nail infections, skin and mucous membranes are also often accompanies diabetes due to existing immunodeficiency.
Symptoms of different types of diabetes
The most common type 1 diabetes, type 2 and gestational. 1 diabetes type is associated with insulin deficiency in the body.It most often occurs in children and young people up to 30 years.For this type of diabetes, specifically the sharp decline in body weight against the backdrop of increased appetite.The man eats a lot, but loses more than 10% by weight.In patients with type 1 diabetes produces a lot of products of adipose tissue decay - ketone bodies.The exhaled air, urine acquires a characteristic smell of acetone.The earlier the disease made its debut, the brighter the beginning.All complaints appear suddenly, the condition worsens dramatically.Therefore, the disease rarely occurs unrecognized.
Sugar type 2 diabetes sick people usually after age 40, women are more often overweight.The disease is hidden.The reason for it is the insensitivity of the tissues to its own insulin.One of the early signs of the disease is intermittent sharp decline in blood sugar - hypoglycemia.The patient feels a shiver in the body and in the fingers, heart palpitations, a severe famine.It increases pressure, serves cold sweat.Such episodes are possible and fasting and postprandial, especially after receiving a sweet food.Diabetes may be suspected and for those who have symptoms of insensitivity to insulin.These symptoms can be called excessive fat deposition in the waist, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid in the blood.Cutaneous sign of type 2 diabetes can be considered black acanthosis - rough skin dark color of the skin in areas of friction.
Black acanthosis in diabetes
Gestational diabetes occurs in women during pregnancy.His signs are the large size of the child, including the data of ultrasound, premature aging of the placenta, its excessive thickness, miscarriages, stillbirths, fetal malformations.Gestational diabetes can be expected in women after 25-30 years, are overweight and family history.
Specific signs of diabetes in children
Children who become ill with diabetes, usually stop gaining weight, height.Babies urine dries on diapers, leaves white marks.
Special features of diabetes in women
For women with diabetes can be an early sign of itching of the external genitalia, is long and hard flowing "thrush".Women with type 2 diabetes, hidden for a long time can be treated on the polycystic ovarian infertility.Also, they are characterized excessive hair growth on the face and body.
Specific signs of diabetes in men
In men, the first sign of diabetes can be impotence.
What to do at the first sign of diabetes?
In case of signs of diabetes doctor rule out other diseases with similar complaints (diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes, hyperparathyroidism, etc.).Further, the survey is conducted to determine the causes of diabetes and its type.In some typical cases, this problem is not difficult, and sometimes require additional examination.
Suspecting at relatives or diabetes, it is necessary to immediately pass the examination in hospitals.Remember, the sooner will be diagnosed with diabetes and the treatment is started, the better the prognosis for the patient.For assistance, contact your GP, therapist or endocrinologist.You will be assigned a study to determine the concentration of sugar in the blood.
Do not rely on self-measurement device - the meter.His readings are not sufficiently accurate for the diagnosis of disease.To determine the concentration of glucose in the laboratory using more accurate enzymatic methods: hexokinase and glucose oxidase.To install and confirm the diagnosis of diabetes may require repeated measurements of sugar at different times of the day or the oral glucose tolerance test.This load test using 75 grams of glucose.In the world of increasing importance for the diagnosis takes on an analysis of glycated hemoglobin.This indicator shows the level of blood sugar is not at this moment, and during the last 3-4 months.The diagnosis of diabetes is established at a value of glycated hemoglobin 6.5%.
endocrinologist Tsvetkova IG