Immunosuppression - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Immunity - this is the main system of the body was protected from anything that bears the signs of a genetically foreign media.
Immunology is a relatively young science, which is slightly above the age of 120 years.Its founder is considered to be Louis Pasteur.
Currently, the immune system is considered as a control system that provides identity and integrity of the organism.Immunity is based on the ability to distinguish the body's own structures from genetically alien and destroy and eliminate the latter.What
structure can carry foreign genetic attributes and, accordingly, the immune system be attacked.
In the first place, of course, there are a variety of microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, etc.If the immune system is unable to cope with its protective role, they begin to multiply inside a person, causing various infectious diseases.
second place in the list of targets located immunity or mutant tumor cells.The body is constantly the formation of a sufficiently lar
This, of course, the list is not limited.Carriers of foreign genetic information may serve as food, drugs, etc. Transplants
This is normal.When trouble with the immune system may develop an immune attack on cells, organs and the body's own tissue.Such a pathological immune response is the primary cause of the development of autoimmune diseases.Abnormalities in the development of the immune response can also lead to the development and allergic diseases.
Ensuring immunity in the body
body's ability to distinguish between "his" from "alien" has been around for hundreds of millions of years.However, only in vertebrates lymphoid system was formed in the morphological basis of the immune system, and plays a leading role in the immune defense of the body.True immune system cells ( immunocytes ) are only lymphocytes.
Currently distinguish two main populations of lymphoid cells: B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes (about their properties and functions below).They, and only they are able to recognize the antigen (the structure itself to which the immune response develops).The rest of the cells involved in the immune response (blood system cells - neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, vascular cells, dendritic cells and others) - only lymphocytes contribute to the performance of their functions, how would cooperate with them.In the development of the immune response is also actively involved the different protein systems (eg, the complement system proteins), regulatory molecules (interleukins).
anatomical basis of the immune system of lymphoid tissue.It forms of immunity organs, which in turn are divided into central and peripheral.
in the central organs of the immune system is the basic stages of lymphocyte development.The lymphocytes of the peripheral organs ripen and produce receptors to a particular foreign agent, that is going to coaching as a clone of lymphocytes to a particular antigen.By
central authorities are the thymus and bone marrow.The first stage occurs thymus development of T-lymphocytes in the bone marrow - the B-lymphocytes.
to peripheral lymphoid organs include the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix, etc. adenoydy
Currently, there are two main variants of the immune response: cellular and humoral .
humoral immune response realized due to the activity of B-lymphocytes, which produce antibodies (immunoglobulins).This type of immune response is directed primarily against the extracellular antigens.This is primarily bacteria.That is to say that it is antibacterial immune response.When malfunctions of the human immunity are beginning to disturb frequent bacterial infections (tonsillitis, acute respiratory infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, boils, etc.).Central orannom immune system responsible for the humoral immune response is the bone marrow.
Underlying cellular immune response operation is the activity of different subpopulations of T-lymphocytes.The central body of this type of immunity is thymus.The cellular immune response is focused on the fight against intracellular antigens.Thus, this type of immune response is the basis for an antiviral, antitumor, antifungal immunity and graft rejection.Accordingly, in this type of pathology of the immune response of the patient start to disturb frequent viral infections (eg, frequent recurrences of herpes), increases the risk onkooobrazovany etc.
In addition, the immune response can be primary and secondary.The primary immune response - the immune response that occurs when the first contact with the antigen.Secondary immune response - the immune response to repeated contact with the same antigen.The development of the secondary immune response was made possible thanks to the emergence of immune memory cells.
Both humoral and cellular immune response have a certain speed and by repeated contact developing agent and have a much faster qualitative features.
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