Infertility in Men - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Groin

Infertility in men - The absence of conception at a regular sexual life throughout the year.

diagnose the cause of male infertility is expedient to carry out the first step in any cause of infertile marriages, including female infertility, avoiding tactical errors, unnecessary time and financial losses.

male reproductive system

male reproductive organs located inside the body and outside.The testicles produce sperm and the hormone testosterone, responsible for the formation of the sexual characteristics.Because testicular sperm enters the spiral tubule epididymis - a body that preserves and nourishes the sperm as it is maturing.Matured sperm on the vas deferens (vas deferens) enters the seminal vesicles - two meshochkoobraznye gland preserving sperm.

whole process of sperm, until full maturation takes approximately 72 days.When a secret ejaculation seminal vesicles mixed with a thick fluid from the prostate to form semen.

spermatogenesis in men

normal development and mature sperm (spermatogene

sis) - a fundamental factor in male fertility, ie,ability to bear children.Sperm production is carried out and regulated by three hormones: FSH, LH and testosterone.Men and FSH and LH act on the testes - the hormone FSH stimulates sperm production in Sertoli cells and LH hormone - testosterone in the Leydig cells.The Sertoli cells immature sperm gradually matures and turns into sperm.However, the sperm motility does not acquire until yet not pass through the epididymis.Become mobile sperm is then stored in the ejaculatory duct ejaculatory moment.

Causes of male infertility

After ejaculation, sperm live in the woman's body, and retains the ability to fertilize an egg for 48 to 72 hours.That's why the most favorable for conception considered intercourse every 2 or 3 days during ovulation.

terms of fertilization, sperm mobility is just as important as the number of sperm.Men with low sperm counts may nevertheless be fertile, but provided that they have a high mobility of spermatozoa.

on ability to fertilize may also affect the volume of seminal fluid and morphology (structure) of sperm.

In addition, male fertility may be affected by the presence of varicose veins in the scrotum - varicocele.By the way, this is one of the most common causes of infertility in men.And finally, on the reproductive health of men can be affected by factors such as obstruction in the reproductive organs, problems with ejaculation, use of drugs or dysfunction or the development of the testes.

There are two main forms of male infertility - secretory and obstructive.When the secretory form of broken formation of sperm in the convoluted tubules of the testes, with obstructive There is an obstacle in their way to the urethra.

secretory form of male infertility

In this form of the testes do not produce sufficient amounts of sperm needed to reach and fertilize an egg or sperm from the mobility impaired, or the majority of sperm have structural defects.

Underlying secretors forms of infertility is always some effect on the testes.The most common disease that leads to disruption of sperm production is testicular varicose veins, or varicoceles.In this disease too advanced testicular vein is unable to give a complete outflow of blood from the testis, resulting in growing its stagnation, the blood supply is disrupted testicular tissue and inhibited its function.In most cases, a varicocele is left-handed, but after a while impaired blood supply and the other, healthy eggs, and joined some other mechanisms.The result of this disease can be a significant reduction in production spermatozodov both testes, and, accordingly, the secretory form of infertility.

Similar effects are possible with hydrocele.In this disease, the scrotum accumulates a significant amount of fluid, which compresses the egg.Prolonged untreated, this compression can lead to disruption of the blood supply to the testicle tissue that could eventually end in such a poor outcome.A similar result can give an inguinal hernia.

more rare disease leading to infertility is cryptorchidism - undescended testicles into the scrotum.Current approaches to the treatment of cryptorchidism suggest that to 7 years of his treatment must be fully completed and testicles must be in the scrotum.If this does not happen, testicular function can be greatly reduced.

other diseases, often leading to the same result, is the mumps, or, in other words, piggy.The virus that causes the disease, has a habit of hitting various glands of the body.Almost always begins an inflammation of the salivary glands, the sick person acquires a rounded shape for which the disease got its second name.Last but not least, the process involved and the sex glands, especially testicles in boys.If inflammation of the testicles was strong enough, and the necessary treatment was not was possibly significant impairment of their function.

Damage seminiferous epithelium can cause a variety of external factors.Prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation can cause not only radiation sickness and a variety of disorders of the body, but also severely damage the spermatogenic epithelium of the testes, leading to a significant reduction in sperm count.Significant in intensity or duration of exposure to electromagnetic waves can lead to the same outcome.This is especially significant for those who like to wear modern means of communication at the waist.Studies on the effect of mobile phones on the function men have not yet given a clear answer to this question, but it is possible that their results will not be encouraging.

is also worth noting the inhibitory effect on the function of the testes to high temperatures.This is true not only for the welders and firemen, but also for lovers of relax in the sauna or take a hot bath.Such procedures better to end a cool shower or at least give the body to cool before putting on, if you do not care about this issue.Very adverse effect on the function of sexual organs affect regular cycling exercise, especially bearing professional.Compression and constant blows of the perineum can easily lead to a reduction or complete disruption of testicular function, so the treatment of this form of infertility by bike, and the more training is better to abstain.Violate testicular thermoregulation may close underwear, pressed tightly against the body of the testicles.

to violations of spermatogenic testicular function can cause diseases such as syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, hormonal disorders, long-term use of anti-tumor, anti-epileptic drugs, some antibiotics, steroid hormones and anti-androgens.Reduced sperm count can also cause factors such as prolonged stress, a lack of protein and vitamins in the diet, adverse environmental factors, chronic sleep deprivation, abuse of cigarettes, alcohol, drugs.

To diagnose this form of infertility besides sperm is often necessary testicular biopsy.This allows not only to determine the status of testicular tissue, but often find the root cause of the disease.

the treatment of secretory form of male infertility as possible cause of the disease must be removed - the treatment of varicocele, hydrocele, mumps, elimination of adverse factors, the abolition of the drug, etc.After removing the cause of the general course of therapy is carried out, aimed at improving the spermatogenic testicular function.It includes not only nutritious food, and the normalization of living, but also vitamin therapy and administration of drugs that improve blood flow to organs of the scrotum.In some cases it is necessary to apply stimulating hormone therapy.

In general, the treatment of secretory form of male infertility is a very long, complicated and painstaking, but not hopeless process.

Obstructive form of male infertility

In this form of infertility by promoting sperm vas paths with one or both sides is impossible.When a unilateral violation of patency in the semen there is a decrease in sperm count, with two-way - their absence.

Development obliteration, that is obstruction of the vas deferens, perhaps for different reasons.Most often this is caused by the transferred epididymitis - inflammation of the epididymis.After calming down inflammation of the epididymis ducts are sealed or glued together, with the result that none of testicular sperm can not enter the seminal vesicles.

The same result can cause injury and testicular or inguinal regions, especially left without examination and treatment of a doctor.Often vas obstruction tract develops as a result of accidental damage during surgery on the pelvic organs -. Bladder, ureter, rectum, etc. There are cases of compression of the spermatic cord cyst or tumor of the epididymis.Not least in the development of this form of infertility takes a congenital absence of the epididymis and vas deferens.Other diseases that can give such an unpleasant complication are syphilis and tuberculosis.

To diagnose obstruction of the vas deferens using special methods by which is determined by the presence, location and extent of obliteration area.Treatment of obstructive form of male infertility is the operational pathways restoring the patency of the vas.The success of the operation is most dependent on the extent of obliteration area.Depending on this, or excision is performed impenetrable to sperm, or the formation of a new path for the sperm.Sometimes for this purpose have resorted to the opposite anastomosis of the vas deferens.

immunological incompatibility between partners

In 10% of all cases of infertile marriages, none of the spouses is not detected any disease that could lead to infertility.Moreover, both of them may be children from other marriages.The cause of infertility in such cases often becomes immunological incompatibility between partners, or, in other words, women are allergic to the sperm of her husband or other components of semen.To diagnose this form of infertility applies a series of analyzes and tests, including allergy tests to ejaculate spouse.Unfortunately, this form of infertility treatment today is a serious problem for Urologists and Gynecologists around the world, and a favorable outcome in the usual way you can achieve is not always.

basis for diagnosis of male infertility is a semen analysis.

Psychological aspects of infertility

In most cases, even if the man knew about his illness, and was aware of the possible complications, the news about their own infertility is a complete surprise to him.Every woman will experience shock and severe shock to learn that she can not have children, but often it does not go to any comparison with the tragedy experienced by a man with such a lime.In the subconscious of most of the stronger sex is almost identical to the concept of masculinity in sexual function, and the inability to have children causes irreparable sometimes painful blow to the male ego.

There are many cases when the men left the family only because of the fact that they were not able to have children, despite the fact that their spouses were willing to put up with the situation and solve the problem in another way, for example, to adopt a child.Many of them then considered themselves no right to found a family, and even to enter into a serious relationship with women, which eventually led them to alcoholism or drug addiction.But even with the family and early treatment of the relationship between the spouses may be irreparably changed.

Many men before the fear to hear that they are sterile, they refuse all medical examinations on this subject, and to persuade or force them to consult a specialist to become extremely difficult, if not impossible.

Possible causes of infertility:

- Testosterone deficiency of various etiology;
- inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system;
- genetic disorders;
- erectile dysfunction;
- violation of ejaculation (including diabetes mellitus)
- mumps history;
- abnormal development of reproductive organs.

Which diseases arise Infertility in men:

  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Mumps
  • Diabetes
  • varicocele

the way physicians treat for male infertility

  • Urologist-andrologist
  • Endocrinologist-andrologist