Adenovirus infection - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Infectious Diseases

Adenovirus infection - an infectious disease belonging to the group ARVI (acute respiratory viral infection), characterized by lesions of the lymphoid tissue and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract / eye / intestine, with concomitant moderate intoxication.

causative agent was discovered only recently - in 1953 a group of American researchers, highlight the virus in tissues remote adenoids and tonsils.The virion (virus) comprises double stranded DNA coated capsid - this causes the relative stability in the environment at low temperatures and drying, and under normal conditions (up to 2 weeks preservation).Resist ether and chloroform to alkaline media (soaps).Pathogen inactivated by boiling and disinfectant action.Pathogen comprises three pathogenic factor - antigens (Ag) "A", "B" and "C" - there are several varieties, and, depending on their combination with each other, there are about 90 serovars i.e. variations adenoviral virion of which are about 6dangerous to humans.A Ar - complement-fixing (p

hagocytosis causes suppression - absorption pathogen immune system cells), B - toxicity C - adsorbed on erythrocytes.

Adenovirus

reasons of infection of adenovirus infection

Source - a sick man, who identifies the causative agent with the nasal and nasopharyngeal mucus, and later in the faeces.There is also a risk of infection from the virus carrier (95% of the total population).Modes of transmission - airborne, and later by the fecal-oral.The most sensitive is the contingent of children from 6 months to 5 years, up to 3 months, babies have a passive non-specific immunity (as a result of the positive effects of breastfeeding).It is also characterized by poorly diagnosed autumn and winter outbreaks due to the reduction of systemic immune status.

symptoms of adenovirus infection

Getting on epithelial cells, begins incubation period (the period without symptoms - from the start of infection until the first common manifestations), this period may last from 1-13 days.During this period, fixation to the cells, the introduction of the virus into the cell nucleus, the synthesis of its own viral DNA due to the suppression of the cell's DNA, followed by the death of the affected cells.As soon as the maturation of the virus over and formed mature pathogens begins prodrome, characteristic of SARS, the disease lasts for 10-15 days.

Feature adnovirusom infection - a sequence of defeats of organs and tissues: the nose and tonsils, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, conjunctiva, cornea, intestinal mucosa.And so, the cycle through the symptoms:

1. Onset of the disease can be either acute or gradual, depending on the immune status.At the beginning of
are symptoms of intoxication (fever, mild headache, aching pain in the bones / joints / muscles);
Co. 2-3 day temperature rises to 38-39 ⁰S;
Nasal congestion with serous discharge that changes to the mucous, pus and then on.
hyperemic tonsils (bloodshot), with a whitish bloom as tochechek.
Increase submandibular and cervical lymph nodes.

2. The defeat of the pharynx, trachea, bronchi - laringofaringotraheit, followed by the addition of bronchitis;All this manifests:
- hoarseness;
- there is dry / barking cough, which is subsequently replaced by a wet variegated.Wheezing after coughing is not disappear, there are both on inhalation and exhalation;
- later joined by shortness of breath, with the participation of auxiliary muscles (intercostal retraction periods);
- cyanosis of nasolabial triangle indicates decompensation of the cardiovascular system, namely an increase in pressure in the pulmonary and strengthen the load on the left side of the heart.

bright clinical picture is accompanied by severe respiratory symptoms, characterized by increasingly for younger children, this is due to the reaction of the lung tissue hyperreactivity in children.

3. With the defeat of the cornea and conjunctiva keratoconjunctivitis symptoms appear - and stinging pain in the eyes, copious mucous discharge, conjunctival hyperemia (redness and swelling), intsirovannost sclera.Often there are educational films on the conjunctiva.

4. With the defeat of the intestinal mucosa, manifested mesadenitis (hyperplasia of the lymphoid tissue of the intestine - like swollen lymph nodes, only in the intestine) as a response, in this case leads to the following clinic:
- paroxysmal pain in the navel and the right iliac region (the symptomcan be confused with appendicitis, so needs urgent hospitalization)
- bowel dysfunction

diagnosis of adenovirus infection

1. The most common diagnosis based on clinical manifestations, the successive over 3 days
2. Additional research methods:
- immunofluorescence (ThisIt is eksperess-by and gives the answer about the presence of the complex Ag-Am (antigen-antibody) for a few minutes) !!!And why it is considered the most effective.
- Virologic method (as defined in smears of prints virus)
- Serological methods: RSK, HAI, RN - these methods are highly sensitive and specific, but time consuming and long-lasting (up to the expectation of the result of 3-7 days)

All of these methods are directed to the detection of the causative agentand specific antibodies (except viral - only pathogen found in this case).

Treatment of adenovirus infection

1. Causal therapy (antiviral).Often people at the first symptoms of a cold do not apply to the experts, and self-medicate.In this case, the choice of drugs should fall on shirokospektornye virucidal preparations permitted in the application at an early age:

• Arbidol (2 years) applied for 6 days, taking into account the age dosages
• Ribovirin (virazole),
• Contrycal orGordoks (blocks delivery of viruses in cell and viral DNA synthesis);
• oxalic ointment or bonafton or Lokferon (antiviral therapy for topical use).
• Deoxyribonuclease as ointments and eye drops (blocks the reproduction of DNA)

2. Immunomodulators - IF (interferon, for sale in the pharmacy, in ampoules - the contents diluted with warm water to the division, gaining the pipette and dropped into the nasopharynx, trying to get on the backthe wall of the throat).

3. Immunostimulants:

• TSikloferon,
• Anaferon (6 months from the moment of birth),
• Ehinotseya (naturally occurring, just added to the tea)

4. Antibiotics: use them when joining secondary microflora as localmeans and systemic use, with no effect on the therapy for 3 days, with the defeat of the respiratory tract (bronchitis because it is rarely only a bacterial or viral origin only - often associated).Local antibiotics (they can be used in conjunction with antiviral drugs):

• Geksoral,
• Lizobakt,
• Joks (as an antiseptic),
• Stopangin,
• Imudon.

Systemic antibiotics: cephalosporins are the drug of choice of 2 or 3 generations (tsefatoksim - impresses with its low cost and effectiveness);but systemic antibiotics of this group only pareneteralnogo application, ie, intramuscularly or intravenously (which is not welcomed by the children).

5. Symptomatic therapy:

- When a cold start is necessary to lavage with warm saline or a weak analogue him Aqua Maris.Then, to remove the swelling of the mucous and how you can apply an antiseptic drug Pinosol or Xylene (very effective for severe edema, but addictive).
- antitussive therapy: inhalation of isotonic solutions + non-narcotic antitussive (Sinekod, Stoptussin) + Expectorant (decoction of thyme, mukaltin "tablets cough," ACC) + Erespal (complex preparation, as an expectorant and as an anti-inflammatory, but it is better to use alreadyin the late stages of bronchitis when departing slime is not so abundant, because it can reduce the availability of the drug).

complications of adenovirus infection

otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pneumonia, exacerbation of chronic diseases, neyrotoksikatsiya, DIC, infektsionnotoksichesky shock, stenosis of the larynx, bronchial obstruction.

Prevention of adenovirus infection

1-2 weeks lifting incidence of SARS and immunomodulators used adjuvants (agents listed above), the use of oxolinic ointment, IRS-19 (it can be from 3 months to stimulate the specific and nonspecific immunity - after a preliminary purification of themucus, used 1dozu / press on each nostril, 2 times a day for 2 weeks).Specific vaccination is not yet developed.

Medical consultation for adenovirus infection

Question: Is it necessary to carry out the planned vaccination on the incidence of lifting points?
Answer: Absolutely!But it should be accounting absolute contraindications (acute illness at the time of vaccination, exacerbation of chronic diseases, etc).Vaccination is needed, because it is based on the already genetically modified influenza virus, ie the one that will be distributed, also taking into account and other pathogens.

Question: Is it permissible to treatment at home?
Answer: If a patient older than 5 years, then yes.Up to this point is very high risk of generalization and fulminant course of infection with high fatality.Just maybe not in time to save.

therapists Shabanova I.E