Sore throat in children - Causes , Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Infectious Diseases

One of the most common infectious diseases in children is a sore throat.Angina - an acute general infectious and allergic disease in which inflammation is involved in the pharynx lymphatic tissue with a primary lesion of the tonsils, accompanied by intoxication syndrome (weakness, headache, fever) and pain in the throat.The structure of the lymphatic tissue of the pharynx includes palatine tonsil (2), the lingual tonsil (1), pharyngeal tonsil (3), tubal tonsil (4) and the lymph follicles of the posterior pharyngeal wall.



pharynx lymphatic tissue

In accordance with what was amazed tonsils, sore throat isolated respectively palatine tonsil (acute tonsillitis), sore throat lingual tonsil, pharyngeal tonsil (acute adenoids), tubal tonsils.The reasons for these sore throats are about the same.

Causes of sore throats in children

Angina child may provoke same microorganisms as in adults: bacteria (streptococcus, fusiform bacillus (Vincent's angina), spirochetes, diphtheria bacillus), viruses (adenovi

rus, Epstein-virusBarr virus, influenza virus, coxsackie virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2), viral-bacterial association, fungi (yeast-like fungi of the genus candida), chlamydia, mycoplasma.

There are also risk factors, such as mechanical trauma, and burns the throat, general and local hypothermia, which indirectly cause a sore throat due to the activation of conditionally pathogenic microflora (usually streptococci or viruses) present in the pharynx.

necessary volume of examination of the child.

In identifying the child has a sore throat you must pass the following tests:

- complete blood count (it reflects the general inflammatory process in the body that will be characterized as an increase in the level of white blood cells above 9.0 -10 * 9 / L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater than 12 mm /h);
- blood test Revmoproby - antistreptolysin-O, C-reactive protein, revmatoydny factor (this analysis also expresses the extent and nature of the inflammatory process);
- urinalysis (reveals the inflammatory process in the kidneys and urinary tract, which can be one of the complications of angina);
- bacteriological test (throat swab) to Leffler wand to eliminate or identify diphtheria of the pharynx, which is accompanied by a sore throat;
- bacteriological examination of the pharynx on flora and sensitivity to antibiotics (this survey reveals angina pathogen and determine the most effective antibiotic for treatment of a disease).

angina symptoms and features of its course in children.

most often in children diagnosed tonsillitis tonsils - acute tonsillitis.This disease are children of all ages.However, the highest incidence occurs in children older than 3 years, especially in those who suffer from chronic tonsillitis.Children under 1 year of angina rarely get sick, due to the presence in them of antimicrobial immunity received from the mother and underdeveloped limfoydnoy cloth throat at this age.

for angina is characterized by ups incidence in the autumn and winter period of the year when there are factors such as hypothermia and overcrowding of children in a group (kindergarten, school).Start of acute tonsillitis is characterized by fever, often up to 39 C or higher, general weakness, headache, chills, sore throat.Children become lethargic, pale, they have a reduced appetite.In severe cases of vomiting and possible seizures.Local changes in the pharynx are characterized by enlarged tonsils, redness of the mucous membrane.On the surface of the tonsils is determined by plaque white-yellow color, and it can cover a whole amygdala and act as a point-grains.When angina is also noted an increase in pain and cervical and submandibular lymph nodes.

Children up to 3 years of angina often occurs on the background of SARS, so the above symptoms may be accompanied by a cough and runny nose.

Symptoms of angina

What diseases can be mistaken for angina

Since the basis of occurrence of angina may lie different causal factors, treatment strategy accordingly be different.Therefore, it is important to make a differential diagnosis based on data from the contact with infectious patients, these clinical symptoms and laboratory tests.

tonsils Angina (acute tonsillitis), which often is the cause of strep should be distinguished from angina, which affects other lymphatic tissue of the pharynx - lingual tonsil, pharyngeal tonsil, tubal tonsil.Diagnosis of tonsillitis are also conducted with acute pharyngitis viral nature, diphtheria, which is the causative agent bacillus Leffler, with a sore throat in infectious diseases (scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough), diseases of the blood, with a sore throat in syphilis and tuberculosis.It should also eliminate tonsil tumors.

Treatment of tonsillitis in children.

Children with mild forms of angina caused by SARS or streptococcus can be treated on an outpatient basis under the daily supervision of the district pediatrician.Moderate and severe course of the disease, and the presence of complications require hospitalization in infectious disease clinic.

sick child is assigned to bed rest for the duration of febrile period, vitamin-rich food, not spicy, not hot and not cold, plenty of warm drinks (tea, juices, fruit drinks, milk, mineral water without gas).

Medication includes antipyretic drugs (paracetamol, ibuprofen, nimesulide), antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoksiklav with streptococcal sore throat).In mild to moderate and acute tonsillitis antibiotics appointed interior in the form of suspensions and tablets according to age dosage if severe - in the form of injection intramuscular and intravenous.The course of treatment antibiotic should be at least 10 days.In identifying the specific pathogen antibiotic is administered in accordance with its sensitivity.

to prevent the development of dysbiosis in the background of antibacterial therapy is recommended the use of probiotics (preparations containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) - Linex, Atsipol.The complex treatment includes also antihistamines (loratadine, cetirizine) and vitamins, especially C and Group B.

Local treatment of angina includes pharynx irrigation antiseptic sprays and aerosols (Miramistin, Tantum Verde, Geksasprey, Bioparox), resorption tablets,pastilles and lozenges with an antiseptic effect (Septolete, Lizobakt, Trachisan, Valium), as well as gargling disinfectants.As disinfectants are widely used 2.5% solution of sodium bicarbonate (soda) - 1 teaspoon baking soda dissolved in 1stakane water solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -1 tablespoon of 3% solution on a glass of water, Givalex solution Stomatidina.

recommended hot compress on the neck (alcohol: 1/3 alcohol and 2/3 water) When inflammation of the cervical and submandibular lymph nodes.When calming inflammation prescribe physiotherapy: UHF to the lymph nodes in the neck, the quartz tube on the area of ​​the tonsils.

Folk remedies for the treatment of sore throats in children.

Traditional medicine offers a wide range of herbs (chamomile, sage, calendula flowers), decoctions of which have a pronounced anti-inflammatory action.The broth is prepared at the rate of 1 tablespoon of herbs to 1 cup boiling water.Gargling carried out 4-5 times a day.It is indicated for any degree of severity of the disease, provided that the child's ability to perform this procedure and the lack of allergy to the plants listed.In the treatment of sore throats also apply inhalation with decoctions of the above herbs, essential oils (1-2 drops of essential oil of eucalyptus Add to a bowl of hot water, cover with a towel and inhale the vapors deeply for 5-6 minutes).Inhalation is not carried out for children up to 3 years and a hectic period of the disease.

prevention of angina in children.

prevention of angina is directed at the prevention of disease, and to prevent the development of complications and chronic process.It involves the removal of a variety of hazards (dust, smoke, dry air, over-crowding), reducing the protective properties of the organism.

is important hardening of the body, physical education, the correct mode of work and rest, a balanced diet with plenty of vitamins.To prevent angina necessary readjustment of foci of infection in the oropharynx (carious teeth), nose and throat (adenoids).

Due to the fact that the sore throat is a contagious disease, a sick child it is necessary to arrange proper care and ensure the safety of others.The child should be placed in a separate room, which should be aired frequently.In the room you need to carry out daily wet cleaning with disinfectants.For the child is allocated a separate towels and dishes that after each use scalded with boiling water.After transferred angina child must be within a month under medical supervision of the district pediatrician.

forecast.

If timely commenced in full and the treatment favorable prognosis - a sick child recovers completely.Otherwise, you may develop complications or chronic process will take.Complications caused by the spread of tonsillitis with tonsil inflammation of the surrounding tissue (parafaringit, paratonsillitis) or nearby organs (limfoadenit purulent sinusitis, otitis).Less emerging infectious-allergic complications (acute rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, arthritis).

doctor pediatric otolaryngologist Rybinets EA