Worms ( helminths ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Worms or, scientifically, worms - a large group of members of the lower worms that can inhabit the human body, causing parasitic diseases - helminthiases.Worms are divided into three classes: roundworms, tapeworms and flukes.Nearly 200 species of worms can attack the human body, however, in the territory of Russia is found only about 20 species.On the extent of helminths affect primarily the climatic conditions and the level of socio-economic development of the territory - that is why in developed countries, the incidence of helminth infections is much lower than in the countries of the tropical and subtropical zone.
Nowadays, the importance of helminth infections is underestimated.However, only in our country each year revealed more than half a million people infected with worms of which more than 80% - children (and according to some infected each year about 15 million people!).Due to the higher degree of helminth eggs Environmental pollution prevalence of helminth infections in rural areas than in u
Depending on the route of transmission of helminth infections are divided into three groups: biogelmintozy (transmitted to humans by animals), geohelminthiasis (part of helminth occurs in the soil) and contagious (transmitted from an infected person).
By way of helminth penetration into the body, the number of worms in the body, their degree of adaptation to the body will depend on the disease manifestations.
most devastating effect on the body have a larval worms and developing forms.While adult worms has, as a rule, stable location in the body - larva complex is able to perform travel agencies, leaving them pathological changes.The favorite habitat of the worms - the gastrointestinal tract, and different species prefer habitats for their specific departments, such as roundworm - the initial portion of the small intestine, pinworms - in the lower portions of the small and the initial sections of the large intestine, whipworm - in the initial part of the colon.Depending on the parasite's location can be divided into a translucent helminthiasis (parasite lives in the lumen of the hollow organ) and tissue (the parasite is in the thickness of tissue).Some helminth infections (eg, ascariasis) in different stages and may be tissue and luminal form.
Symptoms of worms
helminthiasis development usually takes place in two stages: acute - two, three weeks to two months, and chronic - from several months to many years.
acute stage coincides with the introduction and development of the parasite and is manifested mainly immune response to foreign antigens, allergic reactions.Symptoms of this stage helminthiasis like the introduction of different types of parasites.
big variety of different chronic stage: Depending on the location of the worms, their amount and way of life, there are disruptions of various organs and systems.By building in the metabolic system, consuming the necessary material for themselves, the parasite leads to violations, manifested disorders of digestion, absorption of vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals.Waste products of worms not only lead to the oppression of the normal intestinal flora, but also reduces the immune system, contributing to the development of chronic bacterial infections, reducing the effectiveness of preventive vaccination.The increased risk of malignancies associated with negative effects on the immune system and enhance the process of cellular division (recovery) in the damaged tissues.
first signs of helminthiasis may occur from 2-3 days (ascariasis) to 1.5 years (filariasis).In most cases, this period is 2-3 weeks.At the beginning of the disease appear rash, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver and spleen, pain in muscles and joints.For some helminth infections are characterized by specific features, such as jaundice for opisthorchiasis (liver fluke) or fever, muscle pain, swelling of the face and age for trichinosis.
In the chronic phase, the presence of single copies of worms occurs practically without any symptoms, an exception may be the presence of large specimens, such as broad tapeworm, ascarids.In the case of mass infection of helminth infections symptoms consist of digestive disorders (nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea) and some specific features.When enterobioze, for example, is itching in the anus, worse in evening and night time.
When trihotsefaleze - a hemorrhagic (bleeding a) colitis.When ankilostomidoze - iron deficiency anemia.When ascariasis may occur mechanical intestinal obstruction, biliary tract.When helminthiasis with liver disease develop chronic hepatitis, inflammation of the biliary tract (cholecystitis, cholangitis).A special place is occupied with the development of helminth infections cysts (fluid formation in the shell): echinococcosis, alveococcosis, cysticercosis.Even large cyst size can not express themselves, but they fester or rupture leads to dire consequences such as anaphylactic shock, peritonitis, purulent pleurisy.
Helminthiases can be accompanied by symptoms of vegetative asthenia neurotic conditions.
Let us consider the most common special cases of helminth infections.
Pinworms - small little more than a centimeter, thin round worms, gray-white color.The disease occurs when infection of them, called enterobiosis.Infection by these worms occurs by ingestion of eggs of the parasite through the mouth with a poorly washed vegetables and fruits, with unwashed hands after contact with soil or infected pets.Furthermore, autoinfection possibly leading to long-term existence in the body of pinworms.Development of worms occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, the larva develops into an adult for 2 weeks.Adult parasites in the lower and upper thin sections of the large intestine.
While still larvae, pinworms have cause harm to the body: isolating enzymes, irritating (destructive) effect on the colon wall give rise to inflammation sites.Adults, exerting a mechanical action on the intestinal wall, leading to the formation of small hemorrhages in it and contribute to the penetration into the mucous membrane of pathogenic bacteria.Violated the processes of digestion and absorption of food, 30% of people reduced gastric acidity.Changing the composition of the normal intestinal microflora.A specific symptom Enterobiasis is itching in the anus, worse in the evening and at night;at this time pinworms crawl out of the anus to lay their eggs on the skin around it.Itching leads to scratching, scratching in the area in the future there may be pockets of staph infection.Itching often persists after the release of the body from parasites.Itchy explained the mechanism of re self: when brushing under nails get pinworm eggs, which are then, with unwashed hands, safely into the mouth.
autoinfection most often seen in children with worms.
addition to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, pinworms can cause inflammation of the urogenital system: often in girls due to the penetration of the parasite in the genital tract, and joining a secondary infection.enterobiasis disease in children can lead to delays in psychophysical development, cause nervous disorders.
Ascaris -. Large roundworms, red and yellow, as adults reaching lengths of up to 40 cm disease caused by them, called "ascariasis".The development of the parasite begins after falling eggs through the mouth into the intestine, hatched larvae penetrate the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.Passing along migration routes through the gut wall, liver, lung, ascaris larva also have a traumatic effect on the tissue, causing bleeding and inflammatory changes in them.By the end of the road, in the lungs, the larva roundworm grows up to 2 mm.The larva penetrates lung alveoli, bronchi of them and together with again falls sputum in the gastro-intestinal tract, where it develops into an adult.
The intestinal phase of existence of Ascaris ability to spiral forward and striving to penetrate into narrow openings, is an important factor leading to serious complications (jaundice, pancreatitis).Common symptoms of ascariasis are: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fatigue.Allergens allocated Ascaris are among the most potent allergens and parasites can cause pronounced, severe allergic reactions.When ascariasis changes of the intestinal wall structure is disturbed absorption of vitamins A, C, B6, changing the composition of the intestinal microflora.
Often people infected with these worms come to the hospital with pneumonia misdiagnosis, astmopodobnyh states, cholelithiasis.Tangle of adult ascarids can cause bowel obstruction and perforation of the intestinal wall when - peritonitis.There are cases penetration of Ascaris from the intestine into the abdominal cavity through the incision.Penetration into adult respiratory tract may cause mechanical asphyxia (suffocation).
Whipworm - roundworm length of 30-50 mm, got its name from the shape of the body: the front of the long and narrow, like a hair, and the back is short and wide.Disease caused whipworm called "trichuriasis".After enterobiosis and ascariasis, trichocephalosis frequency of occurrence ranks third.Infection occurs through food, through objects contaminated soil with parasite eggs.Trihotsefaleze Symptoms: abdominal pain, unstable chair, a violation of appetite, anemia.
often diagnosed with "acute appendicitis" whipworm infected get on the operating table.
broad tapeworm - large tapeworm reaches a length of about 10 meters, can meet individual length of over 20 meters.The disease is caused by these worms, called diphyllobothriasis.In the course of its development, before you get into the human body changes tapeworm two masters: freshwater crustaceans (development cycle starts with them), and freshwater fish.The man is the definitive host of the parasite.With meat, eggs contaminated Ryaba larva enters the human body, which is attached to the intestinal wall and develops into an adult.After 20-25 days of helminth eggs is able to allocate.
diphyllobothriasis symptoms include disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract and for this disease specific B12 deficiency anemia - increased absorption of vitamin B12 parasite causes it deficiency in the body.
Hookworms - the combined name of two species of worms: hookworm of duodenum, and hookworm, roundworm length of 10-15 mm.The larvae enter the human body through the skin, in contact with contaminated soil, then through the blood migrating larvae through the lungs and bronchi, sputum fall into the gastrointestinal tract.The intestine wall is attached to the parasite from the host blood feeding.
Symptoms of hookworm are made up of the symptoms of lung disease, the same as in ascariasis, but less severe, abdominal pain, and various violations of the digestive tract and are specific to the disease - iron deficiency anemia and reducing the amount of certain proteins in the blood.
Trichinella - tiny roundworms 2-5 mm long, causing serious illness - trichinosis.Infection of human occurs after these worms eating meat containing larvae of the parasite.Most often, this meat is pork, but "champions" for the contamination are wild animals - bears and wild boar who eat their meat hunters often ill with trichinosis.
hitting with meat larvae in the intestine for 3-4 days matures into an adult.Female Trichinella in the period from 10 to 40 days produces more than 2,000 eggs, and then die.Hatched larvae through the intestinal wall into the blood and its current spread to organs, settling in the muscle tissue.The worst affected facial muscles, flexors limbs, breathing muscles.
Symptoms of trichinosis: abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea - in the first days after infection.After one to two weeks after infection appear fever up to 39-40 °, swelling of the face, limbs, muscle pain, itching and rash.During this period, with a massive infection of larvae, possibly fatal.About three to four weeks recovery occurs, in this period the larvae, entrenched in the muscles, covered by a capsule - the body of the parasite isolates.In fact, the man is a biological dead end in a cycle of Trichinella.
Flukes (Cat fluke) - flatworm from the class of trematodes 7-20 mm long.The disease caused by this parasite is called "opistorhoz".More than half of the global incidence opisthorchiasis accounts for Russian citizens.The development of the parasite begins after falling eggs in the water.The larvae develop in the snail body, swallow eggs.From the body of snails larvae go into the water, which are being introduced into the body of freshwater cyprinids (carp, crucian carp, roach, bream).Infection occurs when a person eating meat contaminated fish.Of intestinal parasite larvae penetrate into the gallbladder and bile ducts, where it develops into an adult.To hold on to the biliary tract parasite to help the two suction cups on the body.
opisthorchiasis Symptoms: acute phase of the disease lasts up to two months after infection and shows the weight and pain in the upper abdomen, fever, aching muscles and joints, nausea, loose stool, allergic reactions on the skin and in the lungs.The chronic phase can last a lifetime and is manifested symptoms of hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts), disorders in the stomach and bowel, fatigue, weakness, nervous disorders.
severe complications opisthorchiasis are cirrhosis and liver cancer.After the expulsion of the parasite in the liver are irreversible changes in the form of chronic inflammation and functional disorders.
swine and bovine tapeworm - similar in structure tapeworms to 6 meters in length.In humans parasitize the small intestine.Infection occurs when using pork or bovine, comprising one of the intermediate forms tapeworm - Finns (whitish bubbles up to 0.5 cm).In the small intestine the embryo is attached to the wall and becomes a parasite of mature after three months.
worm consists of segments (up to 2000), the terminal segments contain up to 150 thousand eggs.Almost daily end segments detached and fall through the rectum into the external medium, wherein the length of the parasite does not decrease as more and more produced in the growth zone.Margin segments are capable of independent movement outside, crawling out of the anus, which is the main symptom of the disease - teniarinhoza.In addition, diseases characterized by disorders of digestion and the stomach and intestines.
Echinococcus parasite in the human body is not in the adult form, but as an intermediate form - the Finns.Sam echinococcus tapeworm is 3-5 mm long.Parasitizes it in the dog's body, wolves, cats rarely.When contaminated environmental objects human contact with infected animals environment parasite eggs get into the intestine, where they appear intermediate forms - hexacanth.From the intestine hexacanth penetrate into the bloodstream and are carried by the bloodstream throughout the body, often settling in the liver and lungs.Once in the body, it turns into hexacanth Finn (bubble, surrounded by two shells).Finn (cyst) begins to grow, destroying the diseased organ.Manifestations of the disease depend on where the cyst location, its size.Often hydatid initially mistaken for a malignant or benign tumor.Because in addition to the devastating complications of mechanical action organs, blood vessels, it is a deadly gap hydatid cysts, leading to the development of new multiple cysts or toxic shock from poisonous cyst contents.