Infections in children ( children's infections ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Children's infectious diseases have been known since ancient times.Written sources of Mesopotamia, China, ancient Egypt (II-III century BC) indicate the description of cases of tetanus, polio, erysipelas, mumps and feverish conditions in children.And only with the XX century introduced vaccine prevention of such diseases.Historically, that infectious diseases that occur predominantly in children, and are called children.
So, children infections - a group of infectious diseases, which are recorded in the vast majority in the pediatric age group, are transmitted from the patient to a healthy baby and can acquire epidemic spread (ie, flare or acquire a mass character).
With what may be due to the selection of childhood infections in a separate group?Due to the high prevalence of the first meeting with the agent of infection occurs in childhood.In rare cases, a child manages to survive to adulthood, not from infected patients or carriers of pathogens of infectious diseases.After suffering a disease-resi
Due to close contacts in the pediatric age group in the event of a diseased infection is almost always seen others.What
infection called childish?
1. Traditional childhood diseases with the airborne infection mechanism (measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever, mumps, polio, pneumococcal disease, Haemophilus influenzae)
2. infections encountered in the pediatric age group, with the possibility ofoutbreaks of disease in communities and among adults with different mechanisms of infection (meningococcal infection, infectious mononucleosis, acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, acute viral hepatitis a).
Virtually any infectious disease the child may be infected in the presence of casual contact with the patient. exception of the first year of baby's life, when his blood circulating maternal antibodies to many diseases that protects his body from infection at a meeting with the infectious pathogen.
causes of childhood infections
Source of infection - people.This can be painful symptomatic form of the disease, asymptomatic form of the disease, as well as the carrier of an infectious pathogen.
One of the most common questions parents when it becomes contagious patient and how long it can infect?
Infectious period when childhood infections
|disease||Start infectious period||Contagious whether the child during illness||Contagious whether the child after the disappearance of complaints (recovery)|
|period in which you can infect other (infectious period)|
|Rubella||3-4 days before onset of symptoms||whole period of 4 days + rash|
|Measles||4 days before the appearance of symptoms||whole period of 4 days + rash|
|Chickenpox||with the first symptoms of the disease||entire period of rash + 5 days|
|Scarlet fever||with first symptoms||first days of illness||not contagious|
|Pertussis||the day before the onset of symptoms|| 1week = 90-100% of disease "infectiousness" 2 weeks. = 65%, 3 weeks.= 35%, |
4 weeks.= 10%
|Diphtheria||with the onset of the disease - the first symptoms||2 weeks||more than 4 weeks, the "carrier" of more than 6 months|
|Mumps (Mumps)||1- 2 days before the first symptoms||to 9 days, the disease is not contagious|
|Polio||1-2 days before the first complaints||3-6 weeks|
|Hepatitis a||3 - 23 days||entire period of jaundice, 1 month||months|
|Dysentery||with the first symptoms of the disease||the entire period of illness||1 - 4 weeks, months|
|Salmonellosis||with the first symptoms of the disease||entire perioddisease||3 weeks, followed by a year at 1 - 5% of patients|
mechanism infection with traditional children's infections - aerogenic and path infection: airborne.Infectious nasopharyngeal mucus, bronchial secretions (sputum), saliva, which when coughing, sneezing, talking the patient can be sprayed as a fine spray at a distance of 2-3 meters from him.In the contact zone are all the children who are close to the sick.Some pathogens are distributed well in the distance.For example, the measles virus in the cold season can be spread by the ventilation system in a particular building (ie, patients may be one of the entrance of the house, for example).Also has epidemiological significance of household contact and transmission path (household items, toys, towels).In this regard, it depends on the stability of pathogens in the environment.But, despite this, the example is the high infection varicella contact-household by at virus resistance in the environment for a total of 2 hours.Pathogens scarlet fever and diphtheria are very stable in the environment, so the contact and the way home is also important.Also, for some diseases infection occurs by the fecal-oral route (intestinal infections, hepatitis A, polio, for example), and transmission factors may arise as the household items - toys, furniture, dishes, and infected food.
susceptibility to childhood infections is high enough.Of course, specific prophylaxis (vaccination) is doing its job.Through it creates immunological layer of refractory individuals to measles, mumps, polio, whooping cough, diphtheria.However, there remain quite vulnerable unvaccinated children belonging to the risk group.When the children's infections characterized by the frequent occurrence of collective outbreaks of infection.
Peculiarities of childhood infections
children infectious diseases are clearly cyclical.There are several periods
disease, flowing from one another.There are: 1) the incubation period;2) prodromal period;3) during the height of the disease;4) the period of convalescence (early and late).
incubation period - the period from the date of the child's contact with the source of infection until symptoms of the disease.During this period, the child is called a contact and is quarantined (under the supervision of health care workers).Quarantine may be minimum and maximum.Usually, the quarantine period is set for a period of maximum incubation period.During this period, monitoring the health of the child contact - measuring the temperature, monitor the appearance of symptoms of intoxication (weakness, headaches, etc.).
incubation period for children's infections
Rubella from 11 to 24 days
Measles 9 to 21 days
Chickenpox from 10 to 23 days
Scarlet fever from a few hours to 12 days
Pertussis from 3 to 20 days
Diphtheria 1 hour to10 days
mumps (pig) from 11 to 26 days
Polio from 3 to 35 days
Hepatitis A from 7 to 45 days
Dysentery from 1 to 7 days
Salmonellosis from 2 hours to 3 days
As soon as one of thecomplaints, comes the second period - prodromal , which is directly connected with the onset of the disease.Most of the acute onset of the disease during childhood infections.Child worried temperature, symptoms of intoxication (weakness, chills, headache, fatigue, sweating, loss of appetite, drowsiness, and others).The temperature response may be different, but the vast majority of children - the right type of fever (with a maximum in the evening and a reduction in the morning), the height of the fever may vary depending on the pathogen of childhood infections, infectious dose, the reactivity of the child's body.Most often this febrile temperature (over 38 °) by the end of the first peak, the second day of the disease.The duration of prodromal period varies depending on the type of children's infectious diseases, but on average 1-3 days.
period height of the disease is characterized by a specific symptom (ie, symptoms that are characteristic for specific childhood infection).The development of specific symptoms accompanied by fever continued, the duration of which is different for different infections.
specific symptom - a consistent occurrence of certain symptoms.For whooping cough - a cough-specific, having the character of dry and paroxysmal cough with a few short bursts and deep whistling breath (reprise).For mumps (mumps) - an inflammation of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands (parotid swelling of the area, pain when touched, puffiness of the face, pain in the affected area, dry mouth).Diphtheria is characterized by specific lesions of the oropharynx (tonsils increase, swelling and the appearance of the characteristic grayish fibrinous plaque on the tonsils).For hepatitis A during the height manifested jaundice.When polio - a characteristic lesion of the nervous system.
However, one of the most frequent manifestations of childhood infections is rash (infectious rash) .This rash is "frightening card" infections in children and requires the correct decryption.The rash can occur simultaneously or in stages.
When rubella rash has melkopyatnisty and then maculopapular in nature, occurs predominantly on the extensor surfaces of the limbs and trunk - back, lower back, buttocks, skin background is not changed.First appears on the face, then spreads to the body throughout the day.It disappears.
rash of rubella
When measles is observed mottled papulleznaya rash, characterized by descending sequence of rash (1 day rash - the face, scalp, upper chest, the 2nd day of the rash - the trunk and the upper half of the hands, 3rd dayscars - the lower part of the hands, lower limbs, and his face pale), rash tends to merge, after the disappearance of pigmentation of the skin is preserved.Sometimes a rash with measles rubella recalls.In this situation, the doctor comes to the aid of a particular symptom - Koplik spots Filatova, (on the inside of the cheeks whitish-greenish papules appearing on the 2-3 day of illness).
rash of measles
Filatov spots in measles
When we see varicella vesicular eruption (bubble) whose elements are arranged on a background of redness.At first, this spot, then it stands, formed a bubble with serous clear liquid, then dries the bubble, the liquid disappears and the crust.Characterized podsypaniya repeated temperature rises again in 2-3 days.The period from the time the rash appears until all scabs dropout lasts 2-3 weeks.
rash of chickenpox
When scarlet fever on hyperemic skin background (background redness) appear abundant punctulate rash.Rash intensively in the field of skin folds (the folds of elbows, armpits, inguinal folds).Nasolabial triangle pale and free from rashes.After the disappearance of the rash scaling, continuing for 2-3 weeks.
rash of scarlet fever
nasolabial triangle in scarlet fever
Meningococcal infection (meningococcemia) is characterized by the appearance of hemorrhagic rash first shallow and then drain the character as a "star."The rash often appears on the buttocks, legs, arms, eyelids.
rash of meningococcemia
|disease||Terms rash appears||duration period of rash (on average)|
|Rubella||end of the 1st-2nd day of illness||2-5 days|
|Measles||3-4th days of illness||5-7 days|
|Chickenpox||2nd day of illness||1-1,5 weeks|
|Scarlet fever||end of the 1st day||5-6days|
|Meningococcal disease||6-14 hour illness!(Ie the first day)||8-10 days|
addition to rashes, any children infection is characterized by lymphadenopathy (increase in certain groups of lymph nodes) .Participation of the lymphatic system - part neotemlennaya infection with infections.When there is an increase zadnesheynyh rubella and neck lymph nodes.When measles increased cervical lymph nodes, varicella - BTE and neck, and in scarlet fever - perednesheynye lymph nodes.If mononucleosis - a strong increase zadnesheynyh lymph nodes (lymph nodes packets are seen when turning the baby's head).
convalescence period (recovery) characterized by the extinction of all the symptoms of infection, restoring the functions of the affected organs and systems, the formation of immunity.Early convalescence lasts up to 3 months late convalescence period affects up to 6-12 months, at least - for longer.
Another feature of childhood infections is the variety of clinical forms.There are
manifest forms (with the characteristic symptoms of the disease), mild, moderate, severe, deleted form, subclinical (asymptomatic), abortive form (interrupt the course of infection).
expected complexity of infections in children and is a danger of the rapid development of heavy
complications. It can be: infectious-toxic shock at the beginning of the disease (critical drop in pressure that often occurs when meningococcal disease, scarlet fever), neurotoxicosis at high temperatures (developing cerebral edema), sudden cessation of breathing or apnea in whooping cough (due to depression of the respiratorycenter), the syndrome of true cereal with diphtheria (due to strong toxic edema of the oropharynx), viral infection of the brain (rubella encephalitis, measles encephalitis, varicella encephalitis), dehydration syndrome (acute intestinal infections), bronchial obstruction, gemolitikouremichesky syndrome, DIC.
Considering all the above, it is necessary to keep critical attitude to the child's condition and promptly seek medical care.
Symptoms of childhood infections that require treatment to the doctor
1) Febrile temperature (38 ° C and above).
2) Severe symptoms of intoxication (lethargy, drowsiness child).
3) The appearance of the rash.
4) Vomiting and severe headache.
5) The appearance of any symptoms on a high temperature.
Diagnostics childhood infections
initial diagnosis carried pediatrician.Matter: the patient's contact with other patients with the infection, data on vaccination (vaccination), the characteristic symptoms of the infection.
final diagnosis takes place after laboratory studies.
- Non-specific methods (general analysis of blood, urine, feces, blood biochemical studies, studies of blood electrolytes), instrumental diagnostic methods (X-ray, ultrasound, MRI readings)
- Specific methods for the detection of pathogens and / or antigens (virological, bacteriologicalPCR), as well as for the detection of antibodies to pathogens in the blood (IFA, IHA, HI, PA, PHA, etc.).
Basic principles of treatment of childhood infections
goal of treatment - recovery of small patient and restoration of impaired functions of organs and systems, achieved the following tasks:
1) combating pathogen and its toxins;
2) maintaining the functions of vital organs and systems;
3) increase the immunological reactivity (resistance) body of the child;
4) prevention of complications of childhood infection.
treatment tasks are carried out the following activities:
1. Timely detection and, if necessary, hospitalization of a sick child, creating his protective mode - bed with severe and moderate condition, nutrition, drinking regime.
2. Causal therapy (specific drugs aimed at suppressing the growth or destruction of the infectious agent).Depending on the appointed antibiaterialnye infection drugs, anti-viral agents.
infectious disease doctor Bykov NI