Karelian fever ( Ockelbo disease) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Infectious Diseases

Karelian fever (Ockelbo disease) - an acute, transmissible viral disease, infection which occurs through the bite of mosquitoes, and characterized by a rash and joint disease, occurring against the backdrop of feverish intoxication syndrome.

Pathogen first isolated from mosquitoes, when an epidemic outbreak in central Switzerland (in the place Ockelbo) in 1980.This outbreak was registered in 1982 in Finland and then in Karelia.All these areas are on the same latitude / longitude, making it possible to suspect a natural foci.But in the study of this disease work was suspended and scientific texts and remaining gaps: the structure of the virus and the pathogenesis mechanism is not fully understood, the virus reservoir, ways of infection, some questions remain open on immunity.Perhaps the scientific work was stopped due to the fact that after the disease is not life-threatening or disabling generated effects.

Pathogen Karelian fever

originator - virus Edsbyn S / 82, relates to the Togaviridae family (T

ogaviridae), and the genus Alphavirus.Some of the factors and properties of the family and explain the kind of pathogenesis:

• pathogen is enveloped due to the presence of the capsule consisting of a protein that protects the virus from phagocytosis by a merger of its shell with a shell lysosomes (the cell of the immune system).
• superkapsidny species-specific glycoprotein E2 forms spines, through which the virus is absorbed on protein receptors of the host cell to transmit their genetic information, as well as participation in the protection of phagocytosis.
• Superkapsidny glycoprotein E1 - hemagglutinin causes adhesion of red blood cells.

Stability: unstable in the environment is maintained at room temperature for several hours, killed rapidly changing pH, resistant to temperature changes and have already killed at 60 ° C.Also, it causes the death of UFI, the action of disinfectants, such as formalin and ether.

Receptive mostly adult men and women.Regarding the prevalence, as has been said, there is a natural foci in the Nordic countries and North-West Russia.It is also noted the rise in the incidence of summer.

reasons Karelian fever

Source - mosquitoes, human role in the transmission of disease is not completely understood.Way - transmissive (ie, the bite of mosquitoes), aerogenic questionable.

Symptoms Karelian fever

Concerning the stage and symptoms also do not have enough information, but these are the facts that are known at the moment:

• incubation period is not set;
• The disease begins acutely, with joint pain and exanthematous manifestations (rash), which testify to the spread of the pathogen through the bloodstream after a mosquito bite.
• feverish intoxication syndrome is considered a rare manifestation of Karelian fever and only recorded in 14% of infected;
• The nature of the flow of arthralgia: tenderness of the joints, swelling, and limitation in the motion - but these symptoms are not disabling, ie without tissue / structural change and pass completely after treatment.Often there are many different affected joints calibration - ie there is arthritis.Keep these symptoms can be from 2 weeks to 24 months - all in different ways.
• Character exanthema - appears immediately after arthralgia, ie in the first 3 days of illness and persists for 10 days.First, there are stains up to 10 mm in diameter, not prone to the merger, then papules are formed on these spots (inflamed nodules), some of them converted into vesicles (bubbles).It is believed that the rash is formed simultaneously, ie without phasing and podsypaniya, so it is considered true nature of polymorphic - ie when there are areas of the body with different characteristics (and papules, and pustules and vesicles, and patches).Also, when this is not observed exanthema merger rash and itching.

Diagnostics Karelian fever

• Review epidemiological preconditions under which consider seasonal incidence and stay in epidemic areas.
• The clinical picture is not difficult, because arthralgia and rash occur almost simultaneously.
• Serological diagnosis (Immunoassay - ELISA) is aimed at determining the rise in antibody titer 4 times or more - only in this case, the diagnosis can be considered eligible.The presence of IgM which can be determined in the course of 4 years and more talking about long-term stay of the virus, that is, the carriers of.

Treatment

Karelian fever issue specific treatment is still open, but it is possible testing etitropnogo treatment suitable for family togovirusov: application viratsidov (Arbidol, izoprinozin), immunomodulators (interferon viferon) and adjuvants (tsikloferon, anaferon).

And symptomatic treatment is prescribed depending on the dominant symptoms: fever, corticosteroids (in severe intoxication with joint and skin manifestations).

Complications

of scientifically there is no data.

Prevention:

septsificheskoy prevention is not, and is reduced only to non-specific protection against mosquito bites.

whether from person to person transmitted diseases - no data.After suffering a disease formed lifelong immunity and recurrent disease is not present.

therapists Shabanova I.E