Listeriosis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Listeriosis - an infectious disease characterized by lesions of the protective cells of the immune system with the development of numerous symptoms, which are dominated by anginal-septic form and pathology of the nervous system.
disease is widespread in various countries.Basically, listeriosis occurs in wild and domestic animals.A person infected is rare, but when the infection disease is extremely difficult.It was found that the fatality at Listeriosis of newborns registered at 80%.In pregnant women, the presence of the disease is often diagnosed during a pathological pregnancy: miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth.Especially difficult the illness in people with reduced immunity.It is the elderly, patients with chronic diseases, HIV-infected patients.Currently, all cases of the disease in patients suffering from drug and alcohol addiction are recorded more often.Typically, such patients listeriosis end fatally.
causative agent of the disease - in the form of a microorganism b
Listeria monocytogene - the causative agent of listeriosis in humans
main host of this microorganism are domestic or wild animals.And it found that Listeria can parasitize in the body of various animals, from wolves, foxes, sheep, bulls, ending parrots and canaries.In the environment a microorganism is excreted in feces, urine of animals, and is defined in large quantities in milk, meat.
characteristic of Listeria is stability in the external environment.It was found that at a temperature of 62 ° C, it dies within 35-40 minutes in boiling water - a few minutes later.Listeria is well tolerated and low temperature, perfectly reproduces in products that are in the fridge.At the same time, the microorganism can be completely destroyed by a standard set of disinfectants.
man infected at the use of insufficiently thermally processed foods derived from animals.Listeria in a large number may be present in pasteurized milk, eggs, soft cheeses, ice cream, as well as insufficiently well-done meat.Also, the pathogen can enter the body through the use of unboiled water, fresh fruits and vegetables under irrigation which contaminated water was used.
Infection is possible by the airborne when working with fluff, animal skins, as well as by contact with the penetration of infection through wounds or abrasions on the skin.
pathogen transmission from mother to newborn at the moment is of great importance.It was established that after the birth mother and the newborn within 12 days of release microorganisms into the environment that can cause infection of the medical personnel, and other women in childbirth.In rare cases, possible sexual transmission of the human patient.
Symptoms of listeriosis
After penetration into the organism Listeria settle in the lymph nodes, where they begin to multiply rapidly.Then, spread through the bloodstream to various organs (central nervous system, liver, spleen), granuloma formed (dense lumps in large quantities containing microorganisms), and in some cases, and abscesses.
period from infection to the development of characteristic symptoms varies from 3 to 45 days.There are the following forms of the disease.
• anginal-septic form of listeriosis - the most common form of the disease often.It manifested in the form of angina.With the progression of the disease formed the characteristic signs of damage to the nervous system.
Bluetongue and tonsillitis characterized by redness of the throat, pain when swallowing, enlarged tonsils and adjacent lymph nodes.Body temperature is increased to 38-38,5 ° C, held for 5-6 days.At the same time the body temperature appear symptoms of poisoning: headache, weakness, drowsiness, muscle pain, nausea.For
fusospirochetal angina along with redness of the throat and enlarged tonsils characterized by the appearance of gray films or ulcers on the tonsils.
fusospirochetal angina with listeriosis.Noteworthy reddening throat, gray patina on enlarged tonsils.
The disease is difficult.Lymph nodes are greatly enlarged and painful.Intoxication expressed much stronger, the body temperature can reach 39-40 ° C.Often, revealed an increase in the liver, spleen.The average duration of the disease when adequate treatment is about 10-12 days.
If untreated tonsillitis progression leads to the development of sepsis (blood penetration of microorganisms and their toxins).The symptoms of intoxication are expressed significantly.The body temperature reaches 40-42 ° C, characterized by rapid rise and fall of temperature, which is particularly exhausting the patient.There facial flushing, runny nose, cough, enlarged tonsils covered with a whitish bloom.Lymph nodes of different areas also enlarged and painful.The skin appears reddish elements are irregularly shaped, single or multiple.
Skin rash, characteristic sepsis
• for the nervous forms of listeriosis characterized by the development of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscess.
meningitis manifests severe headache, vomiting.Neck muscles are toned, painful on palpation.Possible violation of consciousness: delusions, hallucinations, convulsions appearance.When
meningoencephalitis to the above symptoms align eyelids ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid pathological) anisocoria (increase in the size of one of the pupils), a violation of skin sensitivity.Often there are paresis and paralysis.
ptosis century with meningoencephalitis.Omission of the right upper eyelid.
Anisocoria with meningoencephalitis.The asymmetry of the pupils.
brain abscess often forms in patients with significantly impaired immunity.This disease is characterized by headache, fever, vomiting, development specific to each affected areas of neurological disorders, seizures.
• septic granulomatous form of listeriosis .This form of the disease is typical for newborns.In children infected from sick mother immediately after birth developed acute respiratory failure and cardiovascular system.Very symptoms of sepsis are growing rapidly and damage to the central nervous system.The cause of death of these children often become purulent meningitis.In infants, the disease begins on the type of SARS: runny nose, cough.Very rapidly developing bronchopneumonia, purulent pleurisy.A rash on the skin, affects the respiratory and cardiovascular system.Often develop convulsions, paralysis.The disease is extremely difficult in the case of recovery in children for a long time are central nervous system disorders.
• eyes-glandular form of listeriosis now rare.In this case, the infection is usually done by direct contact with the animals.Eye involvement is manifested purulent conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane), purulent discharge from the eyes, swelling of the century, the narrowing of the optic fissure.
Visual acuity reduced.Emphasis is placed on an increase in morbidity and adjacent lymph nodes, fever.
diagnosis of listeriosis
disease can be assumed for the above symptoms.Diagnosis of the disease is based on the definition of a sick person in the blood of the pathogen and its toxins, as well as a number of proteins (antibodies and antigens), the formation of which is specifically for listeriosis.To investigate the use of nasal mucus or throat, blood, amniotic fluid, placenta, pus from conjunctival tissue and lymph node cerebrospinal fluid.Fluorescent microscopy is used to determine the causative agent.Specific proteins are detected by means of immune reactions: the reaction of indirect hemagglutination and complement fixation.
Treatment of listeriosis
If you suspect listeriosis patients compulsorily hospitalized in the infectious department.Treatment is carried out in special boxes.Patients are encouraged to drink plenty of liquids, and a diet rich in vitamins.Treatment complex, depending on the predominant form of the disease.All patients shows antibiotic therapy (tetracycline, erythromycin, levomitsitin).Antibacterials are appointed for the duration of elevated body temperature, and for another 5-7 days after normalization of temperature.
For treatment of intoxication drip shown various solutions (isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution) against drug stimulating the excretion of urine.
to treat eye-shaped glandular listeriosis topically applied solution Albucidum and glucocorticoids.
duration of hospital stay varies with the form of the disease and varies from 14 to 28 days.It is believed that after the normalization of temperature and the disappearance of the main clinical manifestations of the disease the patient becomes contagious, and can be discharged from the hospital.After discharge from the hospital the patient is under the supervision of infectious disease within two years.
Possible complications of listeriosis
most common complications of listeriosis are:
• endocarditis with septic granulomatous form of the disease;
• congenital malformations in children with women, stillbirth, premature delivery.
• death of newborns with the progression of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, as well as the development of purulent meningitis;
• pneumonia and purulent pleural effusion in infants;
• consequences of damage to the central nervous system (mental retardation, paralysis, epilepsy, convulsions) after the treatment.
forecast flow for listeriosis
disease In the absence of expressed weakened immunity and timely treatment, the prognosis for recovery is favorable.The disease of newborns and children under one year, the elderly and persons with immunodeficiency, even against the background of adequate treatment is accompanied by a high mortality rate.
specific prevention of listeriosis has not been developed.
General preventive measures are hygienic measures in pets, destruction of domestic rodents.When working with animals is necessary to use personal protective equipment (masks, gloves, respirators).To prevent infection it is recommended to thoroughly wash fresh fruits and vegetables, do not use water from natural and artificial reservoirs, spend sufficient heat treatment of animal products.For example, in disadvantaged areas need to boil milk, the rejection of the use of products made from pasteurized milk.Meat should be thoroughly roasted.It is unacceptable eating meat with the blood.Fresh meat must be stored separately from other foods.Every housewife in the kitchen should have a separate board for meat cutting.If not, the board after the cut of meat have to be treated with disinfectants (cleaning powder).
Compliance simple safety measures to minimize the risk of listeria infection.
therapists Sirotkin EV