Malaria - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Malaria - a group of diseases that occurs with increasing temperature, a decrease in hemoglobin, enlarged liver and spleen.The cause of the disease - bacteria - different types of malaria parasite, ingested by humans through the bite of female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.Registered annually to 500 million cases of malaria in the world, with approximately 90% of the ill people of the different regions of Africa.
world map.The red shows areas where malaria cases are recorded frequently.
most often infected with malaria, children under 5 years of age.Mortality from malaria in this age group is the highest.
bit of history.Malaria - one of the oldest diseases of mankind.Around 2700 BCChina described the epidemic fever, in many ways reminiscent of malaria.In 1696, the Geneva physician Morton identified the disease in a separate form, and also pointed out the therapeutic properties of cinchona bark.Lantsizi substantiated link the disease with wetlands (mala aria in Italian means bad air).In 1880,
malaria pathogen of the disease - Plasmodium falciparum.He is a parasite in the body of the female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.
Appearance mosquito genus Anopheles
At the time of the bite of a mosquito female injects saliva with the pathogen, is an infection of man.With bloodstream malaria parasites deposited in the liver cells, which begin to actively proliferate.After some time, the microorganisms in large quantities into the blood stream again, but this time to penetrate into the erythrocytes by destroying them.With the destruction of red blood cells and connected to all the major symptoms of malaria.
In rare cases, can be infected with malaria from the patient or from the media of microorganisms through blood transfusions, and using inadequate tools processed to perform a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures.
malaria symptoms depending on the type of agent, the time period from infection to the external symptoms ranges from 10 to 40 days (for embodiments with a long incubation of up to 16 months).Home
acute disease.But sometimes, a few days before the appearance of specific symptoms of possible occurrence of weakness, drowsiness, dry mouth, chilling.For the current version of the classic characteristic of malaria for paroxysmal.Each attack includes "chill" (3:00), "heat" (6-8 hours), "Sweat."
Graphic fluctuations in body temperature image for malaria.Noteworthy periods of sharp increase in temperature followed by a sharp drop to normal values.
attack lasts for from 1-2 hours up to 12-14 hours, depending on the type of agent.During the "hot" sharply increased body temperature to 40-41 ° C, which is accompanied by intense muscle pain, headache, dizziness, nausea, sometimes vomiting.By reducing the temperature of the body develops severe sweating, weakened patients fall asleep.One to two weeks after the onset of fever in patients yellow skin and sclera eyes appear nagging pain in the left and right hypochondrium, and enlarged liver and spleen clearly felt during palpation.
external manifestations of jaundice in malaria
In the absence of treatment, the patients, especially children and pregnant women, usually die because of complications razivshihsya.
malaria diagnosis is based on identifying the classic symptoms: paroxysmal fever, enlargement of the liver, spleen.The patient's blood is always determined by anemia.Of great importance is the fact of staying in the danger area during the 3 years prior to the onset of the disease, or a blood transfusion or medical manipulations, related to violation of the integrity of the skin or mucous membrane within 3 months before the onset of fever.The most accurate method of diagnosis is the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in the blood.Currently prevalent special diagnostic kits allowing a short time to determine the presence of the pathogen in the blood.
Treatment of malaria
case of suspected malaria patients urgently hospitalized in the infectious department.All patients are advised strict bed rest and drinking plenty of fluids.Preferred warm saline.To prevent fever assigned quinine.Effective means that destroys pathogens are primaquine or hinotsid.In addition to antimicrobials used intravenous fluid to reduce the toxic effects of Plasmodium on the human body, as well as hemosorbtion and hemodialysis.
Possible complications of malaria
• Coma .The most severe complication of malaria.In the initial period, there is intense headache, dizziness, vomiting.The patient is agitated, restless.Then develops complete apathy, the patient is immobile, reluctant to answer questions, the team performs.This half asleep replaced coma.The patient does not respond to any external stimuli, develop respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.Without treatment, all patients die.
• Acute renal failure .It occurs when the accumulation of debris in the kidneys damaged red blood cells, as well as with the direct toxic effect on the kidneys, waste products of the malaria parasite.It is characterized by a decrease in the amount of urine and the development of symptoms of intoxication.With timely treatment of a full recovery is possible.
• toxic shock .It is characterized by a sharp drop in blood pressure, respiratory failure, bleeding in the brain, adrenal glands, and other organs.This condition, even with intensive treatment has a very high mortality rate.
• With the development of the disease during pregnancy, serious complications are intrauterine fetal death and infecting the baby during the passage through the birth canal and the development of his severe and often deadly form of the disease.
• With a significant increase in its spleen rupture can occur while moving or at rest. splenic rupture should be suspected when a sudden appearance of intense pain in the left hypochondrium, fall in blood pressure, fainting development.The only treatment option in this situation is an emergency operation.
malaria With adequate treatment the prognosis for living in malaria-friendly.But immunity after the disease is formed very slowly, so it is possible re-infection.With the development of complications prognosis is damage to vital organs.
Prevention of malaria
Preventive measures are aimed at the destruction of Anopheles mosquitoes in hazardous areas, as well as to reduce the risk of human infection.The risk of human infection is reduced when the following events:
• timely treatment of infected patients.
• careful selection of donors and the quality sterilization of medical instruments.
• the use of personal protective equipment when in hazardous areas: protective clothing, cloth or curtains at night, use of repellents (DEET).
• Individual prevention drugs. For 3-5 days prior to travel to the danger zone is recommended to start taking drugs (quinine, hingamin) in prophylactic doses. Reception preparations continued for the whole period of stay, and for 4-8 weeks after the departure from the danger zone.With proper use of medicines the risk of infection is greatly reduced.
well-proven vaccine against malaria exists , since in the same area are hundreds of different strains of malaria can exist simultaneously.
therapists Sirotkin EV