SARS - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Infectious Diseases

ARVI (acute respiratory viral infections, often called ARI - acute respiratory disease) - a group of diseases, similar in character, characterized by lesions mainly respiratory.Normally, if you do not carry out detection of the pathogen is diagnosed with acute respiratory disease, as the agent can not only be viruses.The main route of transmission of the virus, the causative agent of SARS - airborne.In the presence of a bacterial pathogen possible route of transmission through contaminated objects or food.

Causes SARS

It is believed that over 90% of "colds" are caused by viruses.The remaining 10 account for other microorganisms.In the epidemic period may be ill up to 20% of the population, and in pandemics to 50% (every second!).

striking number of virus species, pathogens SARS - more than two hundred!Among them are well-known to all influenza, mutate and amaze lover of humanity with their new species (avian flu, swine flu ...), and lesser-known parainfluenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus infection.Then e

verything is strange and outlandish: respiratory syncytial infection, coronavirus, bokaruvirusnaya, metapnevmovirusnaya infection, but ...

source of infection - a sick man, especially if that person is in the early stages of the disease: feeling malaise and weakness to the moment a person realizes himselfpatients have to isolate the virus, it infects your environment - working staff, travel on public transport, family.The main route of transmission airborne, with small particles of mucus and saliva that are expelled by speaking, coughing, sneezing.

alternative way of food, easier - through dirty hands.Not all people are susceptible to the agents of SARS, the level of natural immunity can not allow the virus to enter and grow in the body, but stress, poor nutrition, chronic diseases, hypothermia, poor environmental conditions can seriously reduce the body's defenses and then the virus will penetrate into he needed tissue andbegin to multiply, people sick.

Symptoms of SARS

Whatever called virus causing the common cold, can be observed common features in any regular (classical) case of the disease: a combination of the so-called "obscheinfektsionnogo" syndrome (fever, muscle aches, headache, weakness, fever, weakness, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, under the jaw, behind the ears, back of the head) and the defeat of the respiratory tract.There are also signs of swelling of the mucous - the so-called catarrhal phenomena: nasal and / or profuse nasal discharge, sore throat, pain in the eyes, watery eyes, cough, which may be dry paroxysmal, barking;and may be accompanied by sputum (often bright).

example, for flu, unlike other respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset with severe manifestation of that "obscheinfektsionnogo" lag syndrome and respiratory tract lesions manifestations.Other respiratory infections respiratory symptoms come in the first place, such as parainfluenza - a laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx) for adenovirus infection - pharyngitis (throat inflammation) and conjunctivitis.

It would be nice if all the disease is "right", as described in the textbooks, then it would be a competent man looked on the Internet, would be appointed his treatment and would have been happy without a trip to the doctor.However, the human body - is so complex system that its response to a particular pathogen predict exactly can not even light from the medicine.Due to the nature of the organism SARS can take many forms from erased, asymptomatic, up to extremely serious and totally unimaginable (atypical) forms.In the latter cases, the doctor will help, of course, necessary.However, even mild forms of respiratory disease can be fraught with danger, as people with a runny nose can be a carrier of meningococcal - pathogen most severe meningitis and septicemia.What can be concluded?Perhaps this: self-test - playing lover of medicine and diagnosis of the disease - a serious professional work.If the medicine is not your hobby, then contact the person from medicine.

So about SARS.From the symptoms, in addition to general described above should be made are those who will testify about the complications and the need to make a person sick animals get worried and consult a specialist, sometimes a matter of urgency.

Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection, requiring medical emergency:

- temperatures above 40 degrees, or almost do not react to receiving antipyretic drugs;
- impaired consciousness (confusion, fainting);
- severe headache with the inability to bend his neck, bringing his chin to his chest
- a rash on the body (asterisks, hemorrhages);
- chest pain while breathing, difficulty inhaling or exhaling, feeling of suffocation, cough (pink color - more seriously);
- lasting more than five days of fever;
- the appearance of secretions from the respiratory tract of green, brown, with a dash of fresh blood;
- chest pain, independent of breath, edema.

In addition, if the usual SARS symptoms persist after 7-10 days, then it will also be an occasion to see a specialist (often it becomes an ENT doctor).Children require special attention if SARS is complicated by the apparent worsening of symptoms or onset of symptoms on the part of any other organs and systems - to the doctor immediately!

Diagnosing SARS

diagnosis of SARS does not pose any particular difficulties in the case of a typical course of the disease.In order to avoid possible complications prescribe chest x-ray, general blood and urine tests, if there is suspicion of a bacterial cause of the disease - the sowing may be made to determine the pathogen (bacteria).Immunological studies to determine the type of virus responsible for the disease, have practical value only in severe forms of disease, serious difficulties in diagnosis (and treatment, respectively), in other cases, this value is very scientific.Viral colds can be confused with the initial stage of Haemophilus influenzae (can confuse even the doctor because the symptoms are identical), and other diseases, so with an increase in symptoms or the accession of new, more severe symptoms, take it to a doctor's attention.

Treatment of SARS

Old anecdote about the cold, being treated for seven days, or she runs for a week, it is not a true reflection of the essence of the treatment of SARS.It is not important how much time will pass respiratory viral infection, with some important losses (or benefits) out of the human struggle.Therefore, to treat SARS need not letting all the "gravity".

And SARS is the treatment of any disease, it is necessary: ​​

- To address the cause of SARS : for this are specific antiviral drugs, formulations containing immune proteins (human interferon), drugs that stimulate the production of interferon own body.

Special antiviral drugs (rimantadine, zanamivir) begin to act almost immediately after administration (ingestion, application of ointments), however, have one major drawback - they have a relatively narrow spectrum of activity, that is, if the infection is not caused by the kind of virus that is expected atappointment of treatment, the effect of these drugs is not.

broader spectrum of action of interferon preparations have (Grippferon, viferon), they also begin to act almost immediately after the introduction, are shaped to suit every taste, from drops to injections and rectal suppositories.There were no significant deficiencies in this group, in general, no, but because interferon is not "your", the body sooner or later begin to block its action, to produce antibodies.

Finally, drugs, stimulants produce its own interferon (amiksin, tsikloferon, derinat).Own interferon - the most viable option in antiviral defense, however, should be aware that the effect of these drugs does not develop immediately, but in a few (4-8) hours.It combines the antiviral properties and also stimulates the production of interferon popular drug "Arbidol."

- To address the symptoms of SARS: for this pharmaceutical industry offers a lot of combination drugs with antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor and tonic effect (antigrippin, koldreks etc.).Using such drugs from SARS should note that not all of their components may be you need.For example, it is not recommended to reduce (knock down) the temperature below 38 degrees, because the increase in body temperature - a mechanism that helps to activate the body's protective properties and reducing the activity of viral replication.Another component - vasoconstrictor (phenylephrine), is of questionable value as valid on the route of administration, rather causing vasoconstriction gastrointestinal than inflamed airways.

drugs for symptomatic treatment alone SARS: an analgesic (paracetamol), antihistamines (suprastin, Claritin), nasal drops and vitamin C is not only cost 2-3 times cheaper, but also provide a more flexible, compared with colorful bagsapproach to the removal of cold symptoms.

- nasal lavage. against the common cold and for the prevention and treatment of diseases of ENT organs, as well as complications of nasal lavage is used.However, most solutions for the treatment of rhinitis in the form of finished nose sprays imply irrigation procedure, rather than directly lavage.Unlike Irrigation washing may reduce a thick consistency nasal secretions, but does not solve the problem with their removal along with harmful bacteria.After irrigation mucous dries quickly, which further aggravates the cold, provokes edema.Washing also helps to reduce inflammation, improve nasal mucosa of work and reduce the risk of sinusitis and sinusitis.Modern technique involves rinsing the nasal passages with special antiseptic.For example, the components of the preparation "Dolphin" get to the sinuses, diluting mucus clots and naturally taking them out.

- Maintain lifestyle, diet, contributing the most rapid recovery : requires physical rest (bed rest or polupostelny mode), the power must be easily digestible, with enough vitamins, despite the lack of appetite, to eat, however, it is necessary,otherwise the body will not have the necessary "building" elements for its restoration.The room should be aired regularly (estesstvenno, in the absence of the patient).

indispensable component of the diet with SARS - liquid (containing alcohol excluded).It should be a lot, up to 2-3 liters per day, for an excess of liquid products will be displayed activity of viruses - toxins that cause most of the unpleasant symptoms of SARS.fluid type is determined by the taste of the person: it may be ordinary water and tea with lemon and cranberry juice, and herbal teas (rose hips, grass).

Drugs for treatment of SARS

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac.These drugs have anti-inflammatory action, reduce body temperature, reduce pain.You can also receive these drugs as part of medicinal Coldrex type powders, Tera -. Flu, etc. It should be remembered that the lower the temperature below 38 ° C is not necessary because it is at that body temperature in the body are activated defense mechanisms against infection.Exceptions are patients who are prone to seizures, and small children.
  • Antihistamines - This drug, used to treat allergies.They have potent anti-inflammatory effect, thus reducing all signs of inflammation: nasal congestion, mucosal edema.The preparations of the first generation of this group - diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil - have a side effect: cause drowsiness.second-generation drugs - loratadine (Claritin), fenistil, sempreks, zirtek - this effect do not possess.
  • Drops for the nose.Vasoconstrictive nasal drops reduce swelling, relieve congestion.However, it is not as safe a drug as it may seem.On the one hand, during the SARS be applied drops, to reduce swelling and improve the outflow of fluid from the sinuses to prevent the development of sinusitis.However, frequent and prolonged use of vasoconstrictive drops dangerously against the development of chronic rhinitis.Uncontrolled administration of drugs causes a significant thickening of the nasal mucosa, which leads to dependence on drops, and then to constant nasal congestion.Treatment of complications - surgery alone.Therefore it is necessary to strictly observe drops use mode: not longer than 5-7 days, no more than 2-3 times per day.
  • drugs from a sore throat.The most effective means (it is the same thing disliked by many) - is gargling with disinfectant solutions.You can use infusions of sage, chamomile, as well as ready-made solutions such as furatsilin.Rinse should be frequent - every 2 hour.In addition, you can use disinfectant spray: Geksoral, bioparoks etc.
  • Preparations for cough..The goal of treatment of cough - snizat viscosity of mucus and make it liquid and easy to cough.Also important for this drinking regime - warm drink liquefies phlegm.If you have difficulty with expectoration can take expectorant drugs such as ACC, mukaltin, bronholitin etc. Do not independently (without consulting a doctor) to take drugs that suppress the cough reflex -. It could be dangerous.

SARS Antibiotics do not cure!Antibiotics are completely powerless against viruses, they are used only if bacterial complications occur.Therefore, do not use antibiotics without a prescription.It is unsafe for the body preparations.In addition, the uncontrolled use of antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant forms of bacteria.

Folk remedies treat SARS

little about people's methods of treating SARS.Truly traditional methods - a storehouse of wisdom, created by many generations, but increasingly for traditional medicine issue fruits irrepressible imagination of some charlatans.For example, some "people" offer to treat SARS ice pouring, laxatives, enemas, fasting, products of oil refining.Suspicion should call recipes containing a plurality of components (a good half of the list of medicinal plants directory).Do not get carried away by extreme heat treatments (baths, saunas, wraps).In the formulation of the national means of SARS or a cold should not be a component of chemical and poisonous herbs, even in small doses.

correct national method must be simple, clear and easy to use.Usually it is the use of infusions of berries that contain a lot of vitamins (eg, dog rose, cranberry), infusions of herbs that help reduce inflammation and toxicity (linden, chamomile, bearberry, cranberries).As a means for inhalation may also be used eucalyptus, pine, containing volatile onion and garlic.

If SARS is not advisable to use inside infusions - drugs prepared on alcohol.

SARS Complications

Despite ongoing efforts in the treatment of SARS may be complicated.The most frequent complications are pneumonia, bronchitis, purulent processes in the sinuses, otitis media.Possible damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), the brain (meningoencephalitis).If a person has a chronic disease, against SARS, they can escalate.Complications of SARS may result in death of the patient.

Complications of SARS on the part of the respiratory system and ears

  1. Acute sinusitis.During the SARS body is weakened and more susceptible to other types of infections, including bacterial.A common complication is bacterial sinusitis - inflammation of the sinuses, namely sinusitis, sinusitis, sphenoiditis.To suspect that during the SARS complicated by the development of sinusitis can be the case if the symptoms persist for 7-10 days: is nasal congestion, heaviness in the head, headache, fever.If untreated, acute sinusitis easily becomes chronic form of the disease which is treated much more difficult.It should be understood that the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, and furthermore prescribe treatment, the doctor can only.
  2. Acute otitis media.Such unpleasant complication of colds, inflammation of the middle ear is familiar to many.Skip to miss it difficult.However, acute otitis media is extremely important not to launch and time to consult a doctor for the appointment of adequate treatment.Infectious process in the middle ear is fraught with serious complications.
  3. Acute bronchitis.Bacterial infection can also affect the bronchi.