Human papillomavirus infection ( PVI ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
HPV infection (PVI) is one of the most common urogenital viral infections, sexually transmitted diseases.The most common manifestation of HPV infection - "genital warts" or genital warts.Already in the late 60-ies of the XIX century, when the methodical study of the possibility of a viral infection of the genital wart virus have been isolated, the structure of which had much in common with viral particles vulgar warts skin that spoke of the kinship of these viruses.Indeed, they both belong to the human papilloma virus, only their different types.But HPV infection is commonly referred to as the disease is at the location of warts on the genitals.
How is HPV infection
PVI Transfer occurs only through sexual contact.The infection affects mainly young women who were sexually active with multiple partners, and the breadth of the spread of human papillomavirus infection in recent years has increased dramatically.
Symptoms of HPV infection
incubation period for papillomovirusnoy infection ranges from 1
Symptoms depend on the type of IMC that caused the disease.Distinguish papillomavirus infection in the form of genital warts, flat and inverted (intraepithelial) warts.
Genital warts mainly appear as single or multiple small (and sometimes large or giant size) papillary type of education pale pink on a short stalk and look like a wart, raspberry, cauliflower or cockscomb.Depending on the location (on the external genitals, vagina, cervix), genital warts can be bodily or intensely red, with maceration - whitish.Subjected to ulceration, warts secrete a liquid with an unpleasant odor.Giant warts are symmetrically arranged on the large and small labia, to capture all the sex gap, jump on the femoral-inguinal folds.Occasionally, they are located on the perineum, between the buttocks, as well as the isolation around the anus with the transition to the mucous membrane of his sphincter.Extensive warts can be localized around the urethra to form a sleeve.
Since the growth of genital warts occur painlessly infected with HPV infection often do not notice them, and only with intensive growth of warts seek medical advice.The appearance of significant causes maceration secretions, warts and skin ulceration, which leads to itching and burning.When warts large and giant sizes, patients with difficulty walking.
papillomavirus cervical lesions are often asymptomatic and is detected only when the gynecological examination.These papillomas are very dangerous, and proved their involvement in causing cervical cancer.
Diagnostics papillomovirusnoy infection
diagnosis of genital warts is made by characteristic symptoms and usually does not cause problems because of the distinctive appearance of warts.Genital warts should be distinguished from the broad warts, is a manifestation of secondary syphilis.In contrast, genital warts, they have a wide base, dense, do not bleed.In doubtful cases it is necessary to investigate the discharge for the detection of Treponema pallidum and conduct serological tests for syphilis.
diagnosis and endophytic flat warts on the basis of visual inspection is very hard to deliver.In this connection it is necessary to use additional methods of research.Thus, the human papillomavirus lesions of the vagina and the cervix can be investigated by colposcopy.The characteristic colposcopic picture and have a classic genital warts.Defeat is a whitish epithelial formation with finger-like outgrowths, giving the formation of an irregular shape.The most important diagnostic criterion is the presence of the correct capillary network in these outgrowths, which is detected after the treatment site of the lesion 3% solution of acetic acid.
Diagnostic difficulties arise in the early stages of the disease, when the lesion is small and kind of a rough surface.Thus the capillary network is observed, only vasodilatation in the form of dots are visible.Such Colposcopic picture is similar to that in dysplasia and preinvasive carcinoma (in foreign literature about recent defeats used the term "cervical intraepithelial neoplasia"), however, the roughness of the surface allows to suspect the early stages of the development of genital warts.
characteristic colposcopic features that allow to diagnose the warts are flat and inverted, no.
At a certain experience of colposcopic studies may be isolated areas suspected to papillomovirusnoy infection, severe dysplasia and malignancy, which is necessary for targeted biopsy.However, when a definitive diagnosis additional methods should be used.
papillomovirusnoy To diagnose infections, notably flat warts are important cytological and histological examination of tissue removed with targeted biopsy.
There are some data suggesting a link between papillomovirusnoy infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma, which obliges to oncological vigilance against papilloma lesions.
treatment of human papillomavirus infection
In view of the above, warts always removed, regardless of their type, location and size, the more so as a spontaneous cure of HPV infection never comes, but benign flowing genital warts in rare cases may degenerate into carcinoma.Remote warts must be subjected to histological examination to exclude combination with precancerous lesions and possible malignant transformation.
Depending on the location and size of warts, there are several methods of treatment.
When placing warts on the vulva and the vagina is made removing them with scissors or a scalpel under local anesthesia, after the removal of warts on the wound surface is applied a pressure bandage for 5-6 days.However, surgical techniques, including radical nature, often does not lead to the desired effect, often relapses.
possible treatment of cervical warts using diathermocoagulation and cryosurgical method.
interferon treatment (anti-virus, anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory agent) genital warts gives a very modest success, though very effective in the treatment of PVI other sites.
At impossibility of surgical treatment of warts apply podophyllin (cytostatic drug) cloth moistened with an alcohol solution podofillina (podofillina - 20 g of ethyl alcohol 70% - 70 ml, collodion - 10 g), applied to warts first 3 hours,then its application time is increased to 24 hours. The treatment was repeated 1-2 times a week until the warts disappear.It should be borne in mind that podophyllin is a highly toxic drug and death can occur when an overdose.Do not assign podofillin pregnant, since the treatment with this drug kills the fetus.Thus, both local and general side effects limit its use podophyllin.
For the treatment of patients with infection papillomovirusnoy lower genital system used (with high therapeutic effect) CO2 laser.Pre prophylactically appointed metronidazole, doxycycline, Nystatin, immunomodulators.In women with regular menstrual cycle effects of CO2 laser on the affected areas is carried out directly after the end of menstruation.The advantages of this method are fast and complete healing of the wound without scarring, safety in use during pregnancy.