Parainfluenza - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Parainfluenza - an acute infectious disease (referred to as SARS), caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family, and primarily affecting the mucosa of the nose and throat, with concomitant moderate general intoxication.Parainfluenza
5 incorporates a RNA virus types, but they are large in comparison with other RNA viruses.Like all virions, they have antigenic structure, but it is stable (which is not typical of most viruses) is also absent species variability of the genome - all of this relative stability gives confidence for further successful prevention and treatment also prevents the epidemic prevalence.Antigenic structure - type specific proteins that cause certain symptoms in a human, in viruses Parainfluenza of 2 (H and N) - they are responsible for the attachment of viruses to cells (H) and receptor blockade to viruses on these cells (N), particularly in the mucous membranes, inincluding causing agglutination of erythrocytes (H).
parainfluenza virions are not stable in the environment, so at n
source - the sick person.The path of infection - airborne (ie in direct and prolonged contact, for example, during a call).But even if such contact is no absolute certainty for the infection, but only 6-22%, and the degree of susceptibility to influence the initial level of antibodies at the moment of contact.the distance from the source of infection, the duration of the contact phase of infection in a patient.
The incubation period (the time from the introduction of the virion to the first symptoms) 2-7 days;The input gate of the pathogen is the mucous membrane of the VDP (upper respiratory tract), antigens of the virion cause the attachment to the mucosa (due to the "H") VAR and penetration glublezhaschie tissue (due to «N») - on the expiration of the incubation period, due to sufficient accumulationsexciter and reduce the body's defenses, there is a prodromal period.
prodromal period - the beginning of the general catarrhal symptoms.Lasts an average of 7 days and begins the sooner, the weaker the body, is characterized by symptoms:
• rise in temperature to febrile digits subfebrilnyh- (up ≈38,5⁰S),
• swelling of the nasal mucosa, followed by rhinorrhea (for the nose, often slimycharacter),
• malaise, typical of all SARS,
• redness of the walls of the oropharynx, especially the back wall,
• «barking" cough, almost from the first day of the disease, it is tough, exhausting, dry, accompanied by hoarseness and attacks of breathlessness (characteristicfor children up to 5 years),
• cough can join in the case of compromised airways downstream departments (ie smokers, people with chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis underwent etc).This period may last a little longer with secondary bacterial flora.
1. objective characteristics - predominant involvement of the larynx to form a "barking" cough.
2. Immunofluorescence - refers to the rapid method and give an answer within a few minutes the presence of complex Ag-Am (antigen-antibody), ie, it indicates the presence of the virus from nasal discharge and the presence of specific antibodies.
3. Serodiagnosis (HI, RSK, IFA) - also shows the presence of complex Ag-Am, but in the blood and after a while waiting for the results;Advantage reserves the IFA due to its high sensitivity, because it points to an increase in titer of antibody IgG and M (= immunoglobulins antibody M-Class speaks about the acute period, and G - characterizes the infectious process is at the end or already on its completion);But these methods are not specific, because it has crisscross sensitivity and other acute respiratory viral infections (such as influenza and mumps).
4. General analysis (KLA and OAM) provide little information and will only point to the picture of inflammation (KLA) or complications / decompensation from the renal pelvis system (OAM)
Usually doctors are limited to inspection and objective characteristic at diagnosis, notdifferentiating parainfluenza and SARS, that is diagnosed with SARS, the other methods of examination used in the presence of complications.
Because of the similarity of symptoms with other SARS parainfluenza choice is made in favor of shirokospektornyh virucidal agents uzkospektornye can and should be applied only after laboratory confirmation of a presumptive diagnosis.
1. Causal therapy (directed against the causative agent):
- Arbidol (inhibits fusion of viruses with epithelial cells) - can be 2 years.C 2-6 years 2 tablets a day before meals.6-12 4 tablets.With 12 years - 8 Tab.Take before meals for 5 days.
- Ribavirin (virazole) - administered to children older than 12 years at a dose of 10mg / kg / day for 5-7 days
- Isoprinosine - 50 mg / kg, and the resulting dose divided into 3 admission within 10 days, taken after meals.
- For topical ointment Oxolinic intanazalno (in the nose), bonafton, Lokferon.
2. Interferons - immunomodulators, have universal virucidal properties, because they suppress the replication (split) of DNA and RNA viruses, as well as stimulate the immunological response of the organism.
- Interferon-α 5 drops every 30 minutes for 4 hours in the following days - 5 times a day for 5 -7 days
- Viferon in candlelight - 2 candles a day
3. Inductors interferon - immunostimulants.
- TSikloferon: 4-6 years: 1 tablet, 7-11 years - 2 tablets, 3 tablets for adults.
- Anaferon - it is possible for children from 6 months of age: the first day 4 tablets, then - 1 tablet 3 times a day.The course of 5 days.
4. Symptomatic treatment:
• antipyretics (Ibuprofen, Nurofen),
• antitussive cough appointed in view of the nature and localization (laryngitis when parainfluenza - Sinekod, Stoptusin, Tusupreks; if the process went lower and bought some coughcharacter, then prescribe expectorants, mucolytics);
• inflammatory (relative to the respiratory tract) - Erespal;
• If initial treatment does not give a positive dynamics in the course of 3 days, and the temperature continues to rise, reaching critical numbers, then talking to your doctor, go to the antibiotic.
• relief of rhinitis (nasal lavage - akvamaris or weak saline solution, removing puffiness - Pinosol or xylitol).
Treatment folk remedies
This way of example, but if the child is older, because younger children or those with severe concomitant pathology likely to fulminant and generalization of the process.Especially dangerous is the development of cereal (a triad of symptoms, the leading of which is the symptom of suffocation - in this case requires immediate hospitalization).
- antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory folk remedies: St. John's wort, chamomile, sage, eucalyptus, calendula.
- antiviral / antibacterial: garlic, onions, raspberries, blackberries, Ehinotseya, pomegranate skins (the strongest anti-bacterial properties, which is not stability).
- Sweatshops / antipyretic: lime, raspberry, mother and stepmother.
- Expectorants: mother and stepmother, quince, oregano, licorice, chest collection №1.Antispasmodic effect on the bronchi: chamomile, fennel, chest collection №1.
pneumonia (due to secondary bacterial complications), the croup (barking cough, hoarseness with bouts of breathlessness due to stenosis of the larynx occurs most often at night and in children up to 5 years), exacerbation of chronic diseases.
drugs used for treatment, but as a preventive doses.
Arbidol with 2-6 years ½ tablets before or after meals for 30 minutes;up to 12 years - 1 tablet;after 12 years - 2 tablets;Hour Course - 2 weeks.
Interferon-α (vials diluted with warm water to the mark and type a pipette, then 2-3 times a day apply intranasally. Try to get to the back of the throat (where the concentration of lymphoid tissue), rather than on the back of the nose).TSikloferon, Ehinotseya (immunal the same, but cheaper), add a few drops in tea.
should also isolate patients for a period of 7-14 days, is held twice wet cleaning with disinfectants, separate utensils for the patient stands.
good prevention of viral and bacterial diseases is a full breakfast, because it is so activated antibodies and easy going sensitization of an organism to foreign agents.Specific prevention in the form of vaccination - no.
Medical consultation for parainfluenza
Q: Why is there no vaccine against parainfluenza infection?
answer: yes, but it is not suitable, because it causes an increase in specific antibodies in the blood, and the place of introduction of the pathogen remains intact (ie in the nasal mucosa) and the virus easily penetrates further through the body, causing mild intoxication.In the case of preventing the use of more appropriate local antiviral ointments (Oxolinic) before visiting public places.
therapists Shabanova I.E