Food poisoning - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Food poisoning (PTI) - a disease which is caused by infection with the bacteria actually do not, and toxins, which are produced as a result of vital activity of bacteria outside the human body - mostly in food.There are many bacteria that produce toxins.Many toxins can be maintained continuously in infected products and some withstand various types of processing, including boiling for several minutes.A characteristic feature of foodborne disease outbreaks are, when in a short time a large number of sick people.Usually this is due to the joint use of infected products.At the same time everything infected people who eat contaminated product.
main causative agents of food poisoning
main bacteria, toxins that can cause foodborne diseases:
- Staphylococcus aureus - Staphylococcus aureus - is able to produce a toxin which affects the intestines.Staphylococcus aureus is widely distributed in the environment and well-preserved and propagated in foods that are a breeding ground for him.If the dishes after cooking is left at room temperature (especially salads with mayonnaise, cream cakes, etc.), then they can not be created as more favorable conditions for the breeding and development of staphylococcal toxin.
- Bacillus cereus - the disease is usually associated with the consumption of rice dishes (raw rice is often contaminated with Bacillus cereus).The pathogen multiplies in the dishes, left after preparation at room temperature.The toxin is thermostable Bacillus cereus, and re-boiling it does not destroy the food.
- Clostridium perfringens.This food poisoning is associated with the consumption of food from insufficiently cooked meat, poultry and legumes.The disease usually lasts no more than a day and goes without treatment.
symptoms of food poisoning
To toxin got into the blood, it takes a few hours, sometimes minutes.Therefore, the incubation period (time from the start of infection until the first symptoms of the disease) is extremely short - not more than 16 hours.
for food poisoning characterized by increased body temperature to 38-39 ° C, accompanied by chills, weakness, headache.However, as expressed intoxication occurs not always - sometimes the temperature rises slightly or remained normal.
most characteristic symptoms of food poisoning are vomiting and diarrhea.These symptoms may occur separately or simultaneously.Vomiting is usually accompanied by nausea and usually brings relief.Diarrhea copious watery - up to 10-15 times a day, followed by cramping pains in the umbilical region.
then to the overall picture of the disease are joining signs of dehydration.The initial symptom is a loss of fluid dry mouth;with more severe disease quickens the pulse, blood pressure decreases, there is hoarseness, hands and feet cramps.When the seizure is necessary to immediately call the team ambulance.
Preventing food poisoning
prevention is personal hygiene: do not forget about the "golden" rule - to wash hands before eating.It is not recommended to use in food products with expired shelf life, even stored in the refrigerator, because many toxins are able to be stored at low temperatures.Carefully wash fruits and vegetables.It should be particularly careful when traveling in developing countries, which are extremely common acute intestinal infections (including food poisoning).Such trips are encouraged to eat only freshly prepared hot meals, avoid raw vegetables, salads, raw vegetables, drink only boiled or disinfected water, not drink beverages with ice.
Desmol (bismuth subsalicylate) - an effective tool for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea.The drug is taken orally at 524mg (2 tablets) 4 times a day.His reception for 3 weeks is safe.
Dehydration with food poisoning
Perhaps the most dangerous consequence of IPT is dehydration, which occurs as a result of a significant loss of fluids in diarrhea and vomiting.
There are 4 degrees of dehydration.
1 degree: fluid loss of 1-3% of body weight.
There is a dry mouth, skin and mucous membranes with normal humidity.Hospitalization is usually not required.However, we must not forget about the need to make up for lost volume copious drinking.If you have severe nausea and vomiting should drink the liquid tablespoon every 2-3 minutes.
2 degree: fluid loss of 4-6% of body weight.
At 2 degrees of dehydration following symptoms:
- Great thirst;
- of the mouth, nose, - dry;
- There may be some blue lips, fingertips;
- Jerking of hands and feet.
cramps due to loss of electrolytes - substances that play an important role in many processes in the body, including in the process of muscle contraction and relaxation.
- also noted a decrease in turgor.
Tension - is the degree of elasticity of the skin, it depends on the amount of fluid in the tissues.Turgor determined as follows: two fingers forming a skin fold - often on the back surface of the brush, the front surface of the abdomen or the back of the shoulder;then release and watch the unfolding of time.In normal conditions and in the first degree of dehydration pinch goes back immediately.2 When the degree of dehydration can fold cracking down for 1-2 seconds.
- Several reduced urine output.
compensate, the lost liquid at 2 degrees of dehydration, you can through your mouth.However, in case of seizures should seek emergency medical care.
Grade 3: fluid loss - 7-9% of body weight.
- patient's condition is serious.
- Tension significantly reduced - pinch goes back for 3-5 seconds.
- wrinkled skin.
- twitch muscles in the arms and legs.
- significantly reduced amount of urine.
Dehydration Grade 3 requires immediate hospitalization.
4 degree: loss of 10% or more of the liquid.In fact, it is a terminal condition.It occurs very rarely - mainly in cholera.
When food poisoning dehydration grade 3 and 4 does not occur.
Dysbacteriosis with food poisoning
rich watery stools for several days can lead to a breach of the quantitative and qualitative composition of bacteria in the gut - disbaktriozu.Most often it dysbiosis manifested chronic diarrhea and requires special treatment.
diet with food poisoning
important component of treatment is diet.While maintaining diarrhea recommended therapeutic diet №4, which is characterized by a reduced content of fat and carbohydrate content of the normal protein and abrupt limitation any stimuli gastrointestinal tract.Also excluded are the products that can cause flatulence (increased formation of gas in the gut).
- wheat crackers, thinly sliced fried and not much;
- soups low fat meat or fish broth with the addition of cereals: rice, semolina and egg flakes;and finely minced cooked meat;
- soft lean meat, poultry or fish cooked;
- freshly prepared low-fat cottage cheese;
- eggs not more than 2 per day in the form of boiled or cooked steam omelet;
- porridge on the water: oatmeal, buckwheat, rice;
- vegetables only boiled while adding to the soup.
products to be excluded:
- bakery and flour products;
- soups with vegetables on a solid fat broth;
- fatty meat, meat piece, sausage;
- fat, salted fish, canned;
- whole milk and other dairy products;
- eggs hard-boiled, scrambled eggs;
- millet, barley, barley porridge;pasta;
- vegetables, fruits, berries, uncooked;as well as fruit drinks, jam, honey and other sweets;
- coffee and cocoa with milk, soda and cold drinks.
After normalization of stool can go to medical diet №2.It is somewhat softer diet №4.In the diet added:
- yesterday's bread baking or the dried.Nesdobnoe bakery products, biscuits;
- meat and fish can be cooked piece;
- dairy products, including cheese;
- eggs except hard boiled eggs;
- vegetables: potato, zucchini, cauliflower, carrots, beet, pumpkin;
- ripe fruits and berries are pureed;
- creamy caramel, jellies, marshmallows, candy, jam, honey & gt ;.
Treatment of food poisoning
Treatment mainly consists in filling lost fluids.It should be understood that lost not only water but also essential trace elements, so to replenish the liquid with water properly when diarrhea and vomiting.To this end, appropriate drug "Regidron" - powder containing all the necessary material.The contents of the package are dissolved in 1 liter of boiled water, you need to start drinking the solution as soon as possible.
At 1 degree of dehydration volume of fluid injected is 30-50ml / kg of body weight.When two degree - 40-80ml / kg body weight.The rate of fluid replacement should be at least 1-1.5 liters per hour;You need to drink slowly in small sips.
If there is vomiting, you should try to drink a tablespoon in 2-3 minutes.If uncontrollable vomiting does not allow the liquid to drink, you need to call a doctor.
Besides liquid sorbent used drugs - substances that bind poisonous toxins and eliminate them from the body.To do this, fit the activated carbon, Smecta, Enterosgel, polifepam et al. Sorbents take 3 times a day.
for pain relief is recommended to take no-silos 1 tablet 3 times a day.
NB!Antibiotics for food poisoning are not appointed because the cause is not a bacteria and toxin.
It is important to remember that you can not take Imodium (loperamide) with food poisoning.This preparation causes a significant slowing of intestinal contents removal, which may result in more toxins poisoning and deterioration of the disease.