Cold - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Colds - "popular" name large group of acute respiratory infections caused by multiple pathogens (viruses, bacteria), with general distribution and susceptibility.
Most of us think little cold violation of health, does not require access to medical care without having consequences.Many seriously bind "this misunderstanding," only with hypothermia.The main mass of workaholics and did tolerate cold "on their feet", preferring to home operation.At the same time we must not forget that the basis of the common cold is always the infectious agent - that is the causative agent, and without any symptoms of the common cold is simply not there .We must remember that in the absence of any cold treatment and proper care can lead to complications that require hospital stays, and sometimes complex set of resuscitation.
According to WHO colds perebolevaet adult three times a year, the student - about 4 times a year, and preschooler - up to 6 times per year.The mortality rate for colds ranges from 1 to 35-40% dependi
More than 90% of all acute respiratory infections are caused by viruses, about 10% comes from bacteria and other pathogens.
1. Viruses - non-cellular life forms that contain genetic material - the nucleic acid (RNA or DNA), have the ability to attach to human cells, to penetrate, be integrated into the genome of the cell, multiply by it, and at the exit of the new virion celldies.
1) family ortomiksovirusov (influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2), influenza virus);
2) family of paramyxovirus (parainfluenza viruses serotypes 4, respiratory syncytial virus);
3) family of coronaviruses (13 kinds of respiratory and enteric coronavirus);
4) family pikornovirusov (113 serotypes of rhinoviruses, enteroviruses Coxsackie B, some types of enteroviruses ECHO);
5) family of ARV (serotype 3 ortoreovirusov);
6) family of adenoviruses (47 serotypes of adenovirus).
7), herpesviruses (herpes simplex virus - type 1, cytomegalovirus - type 5, Epstein-Barr virus - type 4)
Some viruses (mainly containing RNA) have the ability to mutate - vary.Some DNA viruses (adenovirus) can be maintained continuously in the body and cause chronic infection.The majority of viruses are unstable to high temperatures, resistant to freezing and drying.
1) conditionally pathogenic flora (normal composition representatives of the mucous membranes of nose and throat, respiratory system, the intestine) - Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and others.
2) pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. coli) bacteria
features: the ability to cause purulent inflammation of the affected systems and organs (nasal mucosa, sinuses, respiratory system).Located extracellularly sensitive to antibiotic therapy.
3. Other pathogens (Legionella, Chlamydia)
causes of colds
infection Source: often - it is sick with symptoms of the common cold, sometimes a carrier of the virus (adenovirus, etc.) Or bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus).Maximum infectiousness in the early days of the disease, however, the infectious period can start 1-2 days before onset of cold symptoms and lasts 1.5-2, and sometimes weeks or more (eg, adenoviral infection).
path of infection - airborne (when sneezing and coughing with mucus microparticles nasopharyngeal, sputum become infected others).Less contact-household path (in dried mucus and sputum nasopharynx viruses can remain viable for a long time on household items).
Factors predisposing to colds:
Any cold arises due to lower local immunity in the nasopharynx and oropharynx.This occurs when: frequent colds;supercooling, which helps to create a comfortable environment for the agents of the common cold;stressful situations.
with the risk of severe colds: early age, children (under 3 years);people older than 65 years;persons with chronic diseases;persons immunocompromised (cancer disease, blood disease, patients after splenectomy, HIV infection).
1. temperature - one of the main symptoms of the common cold by which to say what the causative agent can not be called a disease.Temperature due to the action of antigens of pathogens and their toxins on thermoregulation center, located in the brain (or rather, hypothalamus).The temperature depends on the reaction of the human immune system, in some patients the temperature of the entire period of low-grade disease (37-38 °), and some - rises to febrile digits (38-40 °) in the first hours of the disease.
danger fever that when giperpireticheskoy temperature (above 40-41 °), perhaps one of the severe complications - neurotoxicosis (in children) and infectious-toxic encephalopathy in adults (cerebral edema with loss of consciousness, hemodynamic disturbances - pressure drop). risk for this complication - kids up to 3 years of age and older patients.There
"unwritten rule": the preservation of a high temperature for more than 3 days is a sign of the development of one of the complications or signs of other diseases (not cold).
How to prevent complications: in the event of febrile fever (38 ° C or above) is required to take anti-pyretic and monitor the temperature dynamics.In the absence of effect (reducing fever or saving to previous figures) to call the doctor.Terrible symptom - the emergence of pronounced excitation of the patient at a temperature of 40 ° or higher;Soon the kids can come convulsions and loss of consciousness.
2. symptoms of intoxication at cold - required temperature satellites.This weakness, lethargy,
dizziness, muscle aches, nausea, loss of appetite, redness of the face, neck.Myalgia (muscle pain) - a characteristic feature of influenza infection.These symptoms are caused by a toxic effect on tissues toxins cold pathogens.Intensity of intoxication symptoms depends on the height of temperature reaction.By reducing the symptoms of fever are reduced.Help yourself at the moment can be dieting and drinking regime (see. Below).
3. Nasal congestion and / or rinorreya - a symptom of the common cold.Nasal congestion can be a symptom of an independent (like the flu) cold, and the initial sign, passing subsequently rhinorrhea (nasal mucus the swelling).Reasons - the swelling and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose, followed by effusion (the appearance of mucus).Usually at this point protection mechanism is triggered - sneezing, by which purification is nasal mucus from infectious agents and their metabolic products.Most often, when the viral nature of the common cold are nasal mucous, transparent, viscous character.If there is a bacterial infection of hardware, there is a yellowish-green tint of mucus.This requires systematic toilet symptom nasal application and vasoconstrictors, and cause of the bacterial - drops with antibiotics.
One of the unpleasant complications of rhinitis is an inflammatory process in the paranasal sinuses -. Maxillary sinuses (sinusitis), the frontal sinuses (sinusitis) , etc. During this period, there are pains in the affected areas (right and leftnose in the nose), nasal voice, nasal congestion becomes severe.In this case, delay the visit to the doctor is meaningless, because it requires antibiotic treatment.
4. Headache - a frequent symptom of the common cold.Headache can be local (when hurt whiskey frontal region) and can be spilled, intensive (high temperature).When complications (sinusitis, sinusitis, sinusitis) can be a pain in the forehead and nose, dull and almost constant. If the pain gets character throbbing pain, then you need to think of any other reason it is not a cold (only a doctor can determine). help with headaches may analgesics and antipyretics complex.
5. Sore throat and sore - a sign of the defeat of the oropharynx.There is not at all cold.The pain may be minor (often with viral infection), but can be intense (bacteria).When this symptom the patient can not swallow, eating causes significant difficulties.On examination, pharynx visible redness of the tonsils, arches, tongue, back of the throat, tonsils usually increase in size, the relief will be smoothed, spherical in appearance.When a viral infection on the surface of the tonsils overlays will not, but if it is cold, caused by bacteria, it can be seen whitish-yellowish overlay in the gaps of the tonsils (how-to islands), which subsequently merged. When overlays necessarily see a doctor!If you do not, then purulent process will spread, there may be swelling of the throat and difficulty breathing. In the absence of overlapping aid reduced the patient's throat to receive anti-spray at certain intervals.If there is the overlay, the required antibiotics, which only appoint a doctor!
6. cough colds can be either dry without sputum (eg, influenza, parainfluenza), wet sputum unproductive (sputum departs with great difficulty) and productive (good othodimaya sputum).Sputum by coughing can be transparent, viscous (when viral lesions), with a yellowish component (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae) or greenish color (usually staphylococcus).Dry cough can be a "barking", indicating that the defeat of the larynx (influenza, parainfluenza). In young children (2-3 years) in the event of such a cough is one of the possible serious complications - "false croup" - due to inflammation and edema of the larynx mucosa can occur narrowing of the larynx, and the child begins to choke .This complication usually begins late in the evening or at night, it requires resuscitation.Therefore, to treat cough in young children should be only under the supervision of the attending pediatrician!
Such symptoms as coughing requires the appointment of expectorants and anti-inflammatory drugs. drugs that suppress the cough to take is not recommended without a doctor's prescription!Their method can lead to stagnation of the inflammatory process, "lowering" of inflammation in the lower parts of the lungs and pneumonia.
Joining bacterial component in the cold and the appearance of cough with yellowish-greenish sputum requires mandatory intervention of the doctor and the appointment of specific antibiotics.
7. Chest pain (usually by coughing).Minor pain when coughing can be associated with the intercostal muscles.However, if there is pain in the back of the chest during cough shock, a deep breath, then it may be due to pneumonia that requires urgent treatment to the doctor.Sudden chest pain may occur in inflammation of lung tissue and complications of pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura).Any severe pain in the chest - about the treatment to the doctor.
8. rash body with colds rarely appears.It may be small hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages (petechiae). This rash indicates vascular component connection with a cold (often it is the case of the flu) and requires a call doctor.
So, summarizing all the above, the reason for going to the doctor with a cold should serve:
1) the patient's early childhood (up to 3 years, especially nursing babies);
2) intractable temperature above 38 ° for more than 3 days;
3) an unbearable headache, throbbing headache local;
4) the appearance of the rash on the trunk and extremities;
5) the emergence of bacterial secretions component (yellowish and greenish mucus from the nose, sputum, severe sore throat), barking cough;
6) the emergence of severe weakness and pain in the chest when coughing;
7) elderly patients older than 65 years;
8) persons with chronic bacterial foci (chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, and others);
9) People with underlying diseases (oncological, haematological patients, hepatic, renal pathology).
Children with colds can occur abdominal pain, but since this symptom may indicate and life-threatening conditions - to the doctor immediately!
Help colds before going to the doctor
Treat colds on individual symptoms can not be, but at the recommended drugs or other symptoms are given below.Treatment includes:
1. Therapy mode, the correct high-grade health food, as well as taking a multivitamin.
hospitalization subject to children and elderly people with moderate to severe forms of the disease, adults with severe colds.In other cases, the home mode, with the appearance of symptoms of the common cold to go to work in other people's congestion places are not recommended to prevent infection of others.All the hectic period at home with bed rest.The famous precept: "colds need to stay in bed in bed" is relevant to this day.
Diet therapy for colds is reduced to a full diet to strengthen the immune system, the speedy removal of toxins from the body, for which the food should be taken in the form of heat with the exception of fatty, fried, spicy food.Must be respected drinking modes to reduce toxicity (berry fruit drinks, rose, lemon and honey water).
Vitamins (Vitrum Baby, Junior, Kids, teenagers, complex; multitabs immuno Kids from 4 years multtabs immuno plus 12 years, jungle Biovital kidsnapravit colds, komplivit, Supradin and others).
2. causal treatment (antiviral chemotherapeutic and biological agents, antibacterial agents) .When
viral colds following antiviral agents are appointed (Tamiflu, Relenza, imiksin, Kagocel, rimantadine, Ingavirin, orvirem, viferon), immunomodulating medications (Arbidol, Oscillococcinum, immunal, derinat, anaferon, aflubin, Influcid).
When cold bacterial etiology appointed at a certain stage of treatment (not from the first day) antibiotics of different groups (amiksiklav, augmentin, azithromycin, fluoroquinolones, depending on the affected area, the patient's age, concomitant disease) and immunostimulants (immudon, IRC-19).
vast majority of antiviral and antibacterial agents assigned exclusively doctor after examination of the patient.Self-medication in this case threatens more severe immunodeficiency and the development of complications.
From the relatively safe immunomodulators for colds, use one of the following drugs:
• Anaferon adult and children from 1 month of age in lozenges (activate a local protection in the oropharynx) take: 1st day - the first 2 hours every30 min, then 3 doses at regular intervals, from day 1 2 Table 3 times a day in 8 hours to complete recovery.For children dissolve the tablet in 1 tablespoonwater.
• Grippferon drops for adults and children from birth (contains highly active interferon 2nd generation, which significantly affects the immune system of the patient), 2 drops in each nostril for children up to 3 years, 3 times a day, 3 to 14 years - 4 times a dayadults - every 3-4 hours until the disappearance of symptoms of colds.
• Immunal drops in adults and children 1 year (Echinacea extract stimulates the body's defenses) - from 1 year to 6 years - 1 ml 3 times a day, from 6 to 12 years - 1.5 ml 3 times a day;12 years and adults - 2.5 ml, 3 times a day.The course of treatment - 14 days.Also appeared immunal tablets with 4hletnego age: 4-6 years - 1 tablet 2 times a day, 6-12 years - 1 tablet 3 times a day, from 12 years and adults - 1 tablet 4 times a day.The course is the same as that of the droplet.
• Aflubin drops and tablets (homeopathic medicine) has immunomodulatory, antiviral, antipyretic action.Appointed: 1-2 day illness - before meals for children up to a year - a drop of 1 or ½ tab.3-8 times per day;from 1 year to 12 years - 5 drops or ½ tab.3-8 times per day;adult -10 drops or 1 tablet.3-8 times per day.every 4 h.
infectious disease doctor Bykov NI