Rhinovirus infection - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
rhinovirus infection - an acute infectious disease caused by a virus that affects mainly the nasal mucosa, with slabotekuschey intoxication.
Pathogen ascribed to the picornavirus family (Spanish pico- small, with English RNA - RNA) because of their small size, the presence of RNA and lack of the outer shell.This fact makes it relatively unstable in the environment and easily amenable to inactivation by the action of unfavorable factors.No common group antigen such as, for example, parainfluenza, each serotype (this type of virus family) has its neutralizing and complement-fixing antigen (ie, for each type of virus, the body tries to select a type of antibody).
relatively unstable in the environment, particularly rapidly inactivated in the acidic environment of the stomach, die quickly when heating / drying / disinfecting action but are stable at temperatures below zero and for quite a long time, ie closer to 0⁰S for them harmful than negative temperatures,also resistant to esters.
reasons rhinovirus infection
Source - a sick person or a virus carrier.The mode of transmission - airborne, contact (direct touch) or contact-household (through household items).Outbreaks developed in the cold and wet season (fall and spring), so have a double-wavelength in nature and occurs more frequently in small private teams, such as the family, kindergartens.Sensitivity is high, sick of all age groups.As susceptibility depends on the height of the premorbid background, i.e. the presence of risk factors, the immune status of the patient-contacting, and the duration of the contact time.
symptoms of rhinovirus infection
The incubation period (the time from the introduction of the virion to the first clinical manifestations) 1-5 days.The input gate for the virion is a mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, and it is there formed the focus of inflammation, accompanied by catarrhal symptoms at the expiration of the incubation period and the beginning of the prodromal period: gradual onset with a temperature rise of up to 38⁰S, chilling, swelling of the nasal mucosa, hypersecretion (profuse nasal discharge initially mucousand in a few days - more dense) and the growing signs of intoxication, followed by a weak current.
Also, as with other acute respiratory viral infections, from the first hours there catarrhal phenomena: sneezing, sore throat and difficulty in nasal breathing.nose wings bloodshot (red) and the skin on them macerated (shelled), especially in the run-up to the nose.There injected vessels of the conjunctiva and sclera, ie beginning to be visible small blood vessels in the tunica of the eye, as after a long sitting behind the monitor), accompanied by lacrimation.
In summing up: the main target tissue for rhinovirus is the nasal mucosa, so the first plan will leave redness, swelling of the mucous with abundant detachable, congestion of the nose and peeling of the skin on the eve of the nose;but because of the anatomical connectivity of the nasolacrimal duct with inferior turbinate, the virus penetrates quickly into the external structure of bodies, so there is a response from the sclera and conjunctiva.
Diagnostics rhinovirus infection
1. Objectively and as a result of the survey - the expressed rhinitis with moderate intoxication (ie mild malaise, low-grade fever).
2. Virological method taking material from the nasal swabs collected on day 1 or no later than 5 - in these biological materials exhibit pathogen.
3. Serological techniques - neutralization reaction (pH) - detection of qualitative and quantitative determination of the pathogen and opposing factors (antibodies, antitoxins)
4. general analyzes (KLA and OAM) provide little information and will only point to the picture of inflammation (KLA) orcomplications / decompensation from the renal pelvis system (OAM)
rhinovirus infection usually does not differentiate with other SARS, that is diagnosed with SARS and are also being treated, as well as other acute respiratory viral infections.
Treatment rhinovirus infection
Because of similar symptoms with other SARS choice is made in favor of shirokospektornyh virucidal agents uzkospektornye can and should be applied only after the confirmation of a presumptive diagnosis.All respiratory infection (influenza, parainfluenza, RCI, rhinovirus, adenovirus, enterovirus and koronovirusnaya infection) treatment principle is the same.
1. Causal therapy (directed against the causative agent):
- Arbidol (inhibits fusion of viruses with epithelial cells).Shown with 2 years, 2-6 years: 2 tablets per day before meals, with 6-12 years 4 tablets, with 12 years - 8 Tab.Take before meals for 5 days.
- Ribavirin (virazole).Assign children older than 12 years at a dose of 10mg / kg / day for 5-7 days
- Isoprinosine.50 mg / kg, and the resulting dose divided into 3 admission within 10 days, taken after meals.
- For topical ointment Oxolinic intanazalno (in the nose), bonafton, Lokferon.
2. Interferons - immunomodulators with universal virucidal properties, because they inhibit the multiplication of viruses and stimulate the immunological response of the organism.
- Interferon-α 5 drops every 30 minutes for 4 hours in the following days - 5 times a day for 5 -7 days
- Viferon in candlelight - 2 candles a day
3. Inductors interferon - immunostimulants.
- TSikloferon.With 4-6 years 1 tablet, 7-11 years - 2 tablets, 3 tablets for adults.
- Anaferon.Assign children from 6 months of age: the first day 4 tablets, then - 1 tablet 3 times a day.The course of 5 days.
4. Symptomatic treatment:
- antipyretics (Ibuprofen, Nurofen),
- antitussive cough appointed in view of the nature and localization (laryngitis when parainfluenza - Sinekod, Stoptusin, Tusupreks, if the process went lower and bought some coughcharacter, then prescribe expectorants, mucolytics),
- anti - Erespal,
- carried from a cold wash - akvamaris or weak brine,
- to remove puffiness - Pinosol or xylitol.
If the treatment does not give a positive dynamics in the course of 3 days, and the temperature continues to rise, reaching critical numbers, then talking to your doctor, go to antibiotic treatment.
Treatment folk remedies
antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs: St. John's wort, chamomile, sage, eucalyptus, calendula.The antiviral / antibacterial: garlic, onions, raspberries, blackberries, Ehinotseya, shkorki gronata (strong antibacterial properties, which is not stability).Sweatshops / antipyretic: lime, raspberry, mother and stepmother.Expectorants: mother and stepmother, quince, oregano, licorice, chest collection №1.Antispasmodic effect on the bronchi: chamomile, fennel, chest collection №1.
Herbal treatment for preschool children without medical supervision is unacceptable to use.Especially dangerous is such a complication, as the development of cereal - a triad of symptoms, leading of which is choking, in this case requires immediate hospitalization.
Complications are rare and are associated with exacerbation of chronic or secondary bacterial flora with the further development of sinusitis, sinusitis, etmoidita, otitis, tonsillitis.In young children, high risk of spreading to the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi, with the development of tracheobronchitis, more often than adults is mixed viral and bacterial infection, intoxication syndrome is heavier character.
Prevention rhinovirus infection
Drugs used for treatment, but as a preventive doses.
- Arbidol with 2-6 years of ½ tablets 30 minutes before or after meals, up to 12 years - 1 tablet, after 12 years - 2 tablets.Hour Course - 2 weeks.
- Interferon-α.Vials diluted with warm water to the mark and type a pipette, then 2-3 times a day to bury your nose, trying to get to the back of the throat, there is a concentration of lymphoid tissue rather than the back of the nose.
- TSikloferon, Ehinotseya - immunal the same, but cheaper.Add a few drops of tea.
should also isolate patients for a period of 7-14 days.Held twice wet cleaning with disinfectants.For the patient is allocated a separate dishes.A good prevention of viral and bacterial diseases is a full breakfast, because it is so activated antibodies and easy going sensitization of an organism to foreign agents.Specific prevention in the form of vaccination - no.
therapists Shabanova I.E