Rotavirus ( rotavirus , stomach flu ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Rotavirus - an infectious disease, caused by rotavirus.Other names - RI rotaviroz, rotavirus gastroenteritis, intestinal flu, stomach flu.Pathogen rotavirus infection - the virus from group A rotavirus (Latin Rotavirus.).The incubation period of the infection - 1-5 days.Rotavirus affects both children and adults, but in the adult, unlike the child, the disease is milder.The patient becomes infectious from the first symptoms rotaviroza and remains contagious until the end of the manifestation of symptoms of the disease (5-7 days).As a rule, 5-7 days recovery occurs, the body produces strong immunity to rotavirus and re-infection is very rare.In adults with low levels of disease symptoms can recur antibodies.
How is rotavirus infection
transmission path rotavirus vosnovnom food (through dirty food, dirty hands).Infected with rotavirus can be a variety of ways, such as through infected food products, primarily milk (due to the nature of their production).Rotavirus thrive in the refrigerator and can live
Rotavirus occurs as sporadic (sporadic cases) and in the form of epidemic outbreaks.
virus penetrates the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.Mainly affected mucosa of the small intestine.Rotavirus affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing enteritis (inflammation of the intestinal mucosa), hence the characteristic symptoms rotaviroza.
Symptoms of rotavirus infection in children
Provided the incubation period (1-5 days), the acute period (3-7 days, in case of severe course of the disease - more than 7 days), and the recovery period after illness (4-5 days).
for rotavirus infection is characterized by acute onset - vomiting, sudden fever, diarrhea is possible, and often very recognizable chair - the first day of the yellow liquid, the second, the third day of gray-yellow and glinoobrazny.In addition, in most cases appear runny nose, redness in the throat, they experience pain when swallowing.In the acute phase there is no appetite, loss of strength is observed condition.Long-term observations have shown that most large outbreaks occur during or on the eve of the influenza epidemic, for which it received the informal name - "intestinal flu".Feces and urine are very similar on the basis of the symptoms of hepatitis (light feces, dark urine, sometimes with blood flakes).
Most rotavirus infection in a child manifests the following symptoms and signs in order: rebnok wakes up sluggish, moody, vomits in the morning, it is possible even vomiting on an empty stomach.Possible vomiting with mucus.Reduced appetite, vomiting after meals repeatedly with pieces of undigested food begins and vomiting after drinking the liquid in an amount of 50 ml.Temperature begins to rise, and in the evening the thermometer may show more than 39 degrees Celsius.Upon infection, rotavirus temperature increased firmness and "knock down" it is difficult to keep the increased temperature can up to 5 days.Symptoms joins loose stools, often yellow in color with an unpleasant odor, there may be sick stomach.Toddlers who have not may explain that they have something hurts, pain is a sign of mourning, and rumbling in the abdomen.The child becomes whiny and irritable, lose weight "in the eyes", from the second day of the disease there is a drowsiness.With proper treatment, symptoms of rotavirus infection are 5-7 days and comes complete recovery, loose stools can hold a bit longer.
intensity of the symptoms of rotavirus infection, the severity and duration of the disease are different.Rotaviroza Symptoms are very similar to symptoms of other more serious diseases, such as poisoning, cholera or salmonella, so in the case of raising the temperature of a child of nausea and / or liquid stools immediately call a doctor on the house of the children's clinic.When the pain in the abdomen, call an ambulance, before the arrival of the doctor painkillers child not to give!
Symptoms of rotavirus infection in adults
Adults also suffer rotavirozom, but some may take it for symptoms of the usual temporary indigestion (say, "that something is not ate").Nausea and vomiting are usually not disturbed, may be general weakness, loss of appetite, fever and diarrhea, but not for a long time.Rotavirus infection in adults is often asymptomatic.Despite the effacement of symptoms, the patient remains infectious all the time.Easier flow rotavirus infection in adults due not only to stronger immunity, but greater adaptability of the gastrointestinal tract to such shocks.Typically, if a family or in a group has a positive, in turn begin to get sick, and the rest for 3-5 days.To prevent infection from infection carrier is only possible in the case of an active immune system.
treatment of rotavirus infection in children
Drugs that kill rotavirus does not exist, so the treatment of rotavirus infection is symptomatic and aimed at the normalization of water-salt ballansa disturbed by vomiting and diarrhea and to prevent the development of secondary bacterial infection.The main goal of treatment is to fight with the results of the impact of the infection on the body: dehydration, toxicity and related disorders of the cardiovascular and urinary systems.
When a gastrointestinal disorder symptoms in any case did not give the baby milk and dairy, even sour-dairy products, including yogurt and cottage cheese - it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth.
Appetite of the child is reduced or absent, we should not force the child to eat, give him drink a little jelly (home brewed from water, starch and jam), you can Popo chicken broth.If the child does not refuse to eat, you can feed him liquid rice porridge on the water without oil (slightly sweetened).The main rule - to give food or drink in small portions with a break to avoid the gag reflex.
primarily used in the treatment of rehydration therapy, can be assigned to the reception of sorbents (activated carbon, cmektit dioctahedral, attapulgite).On days with severe diarrhea or vomiting should be to fill the volume of fluid and salt, washed with liquid stool and vomit.To do this, 1 sachet of powder rehydron dissolved in a liter of water and give the baby to drink 50 ml every half-hour until the water runs.If your child sleeps and misses a drinking solution, wake up do not need to wait, when to wake up, but the volume of water is more than 50 ml let's not (can snatch).
How to bring down the temperature of the rotavirus
According to generally accepted recommendations of temperature below 38 degrees should not shoot down, if the patient moves it satisfactorily.To reduce a high temperature (and its threshold of rotavirus infection can reach 39-plus degrees), doctors generally prescribe candles tsefekon children up to 3 years, paracetamol older children (in the age-appropriate dosage).Candles on the temperature are convenient in that they can deliver, regardless of whether the child is asleep or awake.When resistant temperature rises when the temperature does not "go astray", for children older than one year from the prescribed paracetamol analgin quarters.The break between the tablets or candles on the temperature, containing paracetamol should be at least 2 hours, in the case of other drugs on the temperature - 4 hours or more (see instructions), but paracetamol is most effective when rotavirus infection.
well help to bring down the temperature of the wet wiping weak solution of vodka, but there are some rules: all you need to wipe the baby's body as a whole, not allowing the temperature differential between the parts of the body, after wiping wear thin socks on his feet.Wiping, if more than half an hour, rather than the temperature began to decrease after the ingestion of the temperature.A child with a high temperature does not coddle.When
symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders with increased temperature physicians prescribe Enterofuril (2 times a day, the dosage age drinking for at least 5 days) for preventing or treating intestinal bacterial infection.This drug helps to prevent prolonged duration of diarrhea.It can be replaced by Enterol.
When the pain in the abdomen with a confirmed diagnosis of rotavirus infection can give a child Nospanum: 1 ml shpy from the vial to give a child in the mouth, drink tea.
With the appetite for the recovery of the intestinal microflora and treatment of child diarrhea appoint baktisubtil - 2 times daily 1 capsule, dissolved in water for an hour before meal for 5 days.
treatment of rotavirus infection in adults
special treatment is needed.At the expressed symptoms of symptomatic treatment.Avoid contact with children during rotavirozom diseases to avoid infecting them.
complications of rotavirus infection
With proper treatment of rotavirus infection proceeds without complications.If you do not drink the child with vomiting and diarrhea often, especially in children under one year, perhaps dehydration or death.If you do not take action, possibly a bacterial intestinal infection and illness will occur even more difficult.Be sure to follow the child's body temperature, long-term rise in temperature above 39 degrees leads to the death of cells, particularly brain cells.
lethal outcome occurs in 2-3% of cases, mainly among children with poor health.Basically, after the recovery of the transferred rotavirus infection does not cause any long-term effects and a favorable prognosis.
prevention of rotavirus infection
As an effective anti-rotavirus WHO recommends a preventive vaccination.
For specific prevention rotaviroza at the moment there are two vaccines that have passed clinical trials.Both are taken orally and contain attenuated live virus.
Nonspecific prevention is in compliance with hygiene (hand washing, the use for drinking only boiled water).
Doctor pediatrician Vinogradov ETC.