Staphylococcal infection .Staphylococcus aureus - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Infectious Diseases

Staphylococcal infection - a general name for diseases caused by staphylococci.Due to the high resistance to antibiotics, staphylococcal infections rank first among chronic inflammatory infections.Staphylococcus can cause inflammation in almost any organ.Staphylococcus can cause purulent skin and subcutaneous tissue: boils, felon, abscesses, hidradenitis sup-, pyoderma.Hitting the internal organs, staph can cause pneumonia, angina, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, meningitis, abscesses of internal organs.Staphylococci enterotoxin can cause serious food poisoning with the development of enterocolitis (inflammation of the small intestine and colon).

Rhode staphylococci includes three types: Staphylococcus aureus (the most harmful), Staphylococcus epidermidis (also pathogenic, but it is much less dangerous than gold) and saprophytic Staphylococcus aureus - is practically harmless, however, are also capable of causing disease.Furthermore, each of Staphylococcus species has several subspecies (strain), whic

h differ from each other by different properties (e.g., toxins produced by a set) and therefore cause the same disease characterized clinic (displays).Under the microscope, staphylococci appear as clusters of something similar to a bunch of grapes.

Staphylococci differ relatively high viability: up to 6 months, they can be stored in a dried state, are not killed by freezing and thawing, resistant to direct sunlight.

Pathogenic staphylococci effects associated with their ability to produce toxins: eksfoliatin, damaging skin cells, leukocidin that destroys the white blood cells, toxin that causes food poisoning clinic.In addition aureus produces enzymes that protect it from the effects of the immune mechanisms and contribute to its preservation and dissemination in the body tissues.

source of infection may be a sick person or an asymptomatic carrier, according to some estimates up to 40% of healthy people are carriers of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus.Atrium can be microdamages skin, mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.A significant factor in the development of staphylococcal infections is the weakening of immunity against the background of the use of medicines (eg, immunosuppressants, antibiotics), chronic diseases (diabetes, thyroid disease), exposure to adverse environmental factors.Due to the nature of the immune system, most severely staphylococcal infections occur in young children and old people.Immunity after past infection is unstable and, in general, is irrelevant, since the meeting with the new subspecies aureus that produce other toxins, all previous immune "acquisition" a significant protective role does not carry.

Symptoms of staph infection

Specific manifestations of staphylococcal infection determined by the place of implementation, degree of aggressiveness of Staphylococcus species and degree of immunosuppression.

Pyoderma - one of the most common skin diseases festering.Staphylococcal pyoderma is characterized by skin lesions in the mouths of hair.When superficial lesions developing so-called folliculitis - a small abscess in the heart pierced by a hair.In deeper lesions developing boil - necrotic inflammation of the hair follicle and the surrounding tissues or carbuncle - inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue around a group of hair follicles.Most often boils and carbuncles appear on the back of the neck, thighs, buttocks.Especially dangerous is the emergence of boils and carbuncles on his face - because of the peculiarities of circulation aureus can be entered in the brain, with the development of purulent meningitis or brain abscess.

symptoms of pyoderma with a staph infection

staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome or syndrome of "scalded skin" - is another manifestation of a staph infection, occurring primarily in infants and young children.His manifestations of the disease may resemble scarlet fever (like a rash) or erysipelas (hearth red inflamed skin with smooth borders), found in streptococcal infections.One form of the disease - puzarchatka epidemic is a good example of the action of staphylococcal toxin - eksfoliatin.The surface layers of the skin with large pemphigus exfoliate layers beneath them appear larger bubbles.

abscesses and cellulitis - a form of deep tissue destruction with their subcutaneous purulent meltdown.abscess from cellulitis difference is that in the former case, the inflammation delimited capsule waylaid by the further spread of the process, and in phlegmon purulent inflammation spreads to tissues (ie, a more dangerous form).

Staphylococcal pneumonia - a rare phenomenon, but due to the current features and resistant staphylococci to a number of antibiotics, it is of great importance among bacterial pneumonia.
Pneumonia caused by staphylococcus, differs severe, with severe intoxication, pain in the chest (pleural), shortness of breath.In the tissues of the lungs appear multiple foci, followed by purulent fusion, the formation of abscesses.Such abscesses may break into the pleural cavity: a so-called empyema.Getting

of the infection on the face, nose, sinuses, or other places with the blood flow to the brain, staph causes brain abscesses and purulent meningitis.Brain Abscesses are usually small, scattered across the fabric.Meningitis is often secondary in abscess of the brain, or can occur independently when a large number of staphylococci in the blood (bacteremia).The defeat of the brain and its membranes is manifested headache, disturbance of consciousness, neurological disorders, seizures.

Staphylococcal infection can also cause thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of the brain, associated with severe neurological disorders.

Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause (95%), purulent bone marrow inflammation - osteomyelitis.In the process of inflammation affects and destroys all layers of the bone, often festering hearth breaks out.The main feature of osteomyelitis - a pain in the affected area.Later, swelling of tissue inflammation appears over the place, formed purulent fistulas.If it affects the joints occur suppurative arthritis, and the most often affects the hip and knee joints.

staphylococcal defeat valves and inner lining of the heart (endocarditis), endocarditis - severe disease with a high (40-60%) mortality.Getting into the bloodstream, Staphylococcus aureus in a short time destroy the heart valves, causing serious complications such as embolism (blockage) of peripheral arteries, abscess infarction, heart failure.

Diseases caused by exposure to large amounts of staphylococcal toxins, sometimes isolated in a separate group - intoxication.These include toxic shock syndrome and food toxicosis.Toxic shock occurs when blood enters the most aggressive types of toxins, causing a sharp drop in blood pressure, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, disturbance of consciousness, and later there is a characteristic spotted rash.Food toxicosis occurs in 2-6 hours after eating contaminated with staphylococcus, and is manifested by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain.In severe cases of food poisoning symptoms of enterocolitis may resemble similar at especially dangerous infections - cholera.

Sepsis - the most severe form of staph infection, in which a huge number of bacteria carried by the blood throughout the body with the formation of multiple foci of secondary infection in the internal organs.

Diagnostics staph infection

diagnosis of staphylococcal infection is carried out on the basis of clinical signs of disease.To identify the pathogen make the crop discharge from the wounds, body fluids.The basis for the diagnosis of food poisoning can be the selection of staphylococcus food.Establishing the diagnosis, the doctor is necessary to differentiate the disease staphylococcal infections caused by streptococcus, allergic skin lesions from cutaneous anthrax (bacteremia), intestinal infections (salmonellosis, shigellosis).

treatment of staphylococcal infections

treatment of staphylococcal infections should be directed to the suppression of the pathogen, the restoration of immune components, treatment of opportunistic diseases, reduce the reactivity of the organism.

surgical method of treatment centers of staph infection with purulent melting (boils, abscesses) since ancient times considered the primary and remains so to this day.

Antibiotics for staphylococcal infections should be well thought out and justified, as the irrational use of antibiotics, at least, will not benefit and, taking into account the high resistance of staphylococci to some antibiotics, in some cases, harmful, leading to the current weighting of infections.For the treatment of staphylococcal processes often use semisynthetic penicillins (ampicillin, oxacillin), penicillins combined with clavulanic acid (amoxiclav) or other groups of antibiotics - aminoglycosides (gentamicin).

Bacteriophages with a staph infection

To combat staphylococcus can be used bacteriophages - viruses with the ability to defeat the electoral aureus.For topical treatment applied ointment containing antibacterial ingredients, which have antiseptic and regenerative effect.At purulent processes it is not recommended to use ointments with fat basis (for example, popular Vishnevsky liniment) because fats impede the outflow of drainage from the wound, thereby worsening the course of the process.

Improving immunity in a staph infection

Ways to improve a variety of immunity from taking herbal medicines can be selected - adaptogens (ginseng, Siberian ginseng) to complex combinations that include synthetic immunomodulating agents, the introduction of ready-immune drugs: antistaphylococcal plasma or immunoglobulin.Often it used a simple method known as immune stimulation - autohemotherapy (intramuscular injection of the patient's own blood).

To improve the recovery process, with a view to appoint bracing multivitamins.In diseases accompanied by high intoxication, fever, it is advisable to drink plenty of liquids.
Diet for any patient should be easily digestible with a sufficient amount of vitamins.Healthy food is given an important role in maintaining the body's defenses and quick recovery after illness.

Folk remedies for the treatment of staphylococcal infections

Folk remedies of treatment can be used as the only independent method for non-severe forms of staph infection.These methods are based on the use of infusions and decoctions of herbs that have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties (chamomile, succession, St. John's wort, calendula) in the form of rinses and lotions, as well as for oral administration.Infusions berries are rich in vitamins (raspberry, cranberry, currant, wild rose) contribute to the removal of bacterial toxins and restore the body.Heat is recommended to use only locally and in the recovery period. heat to accelerate the maturation abscesses, sauna and hot tub even more impractical to use because of the risk of further spread and worsening infection.

Preventing Staph Infection Prevention

staph infection include: personal hygiene, avoiding harmful habits, healthy diet and good sleep.It is necessary to avoid hypothermia and general overheating, timely processing of antiseptics (iodine, brilliant green) skin microtrauma.It is necessary to identify and treat carriers of Staphylococcus aureus, especially those working in health care and food, on the time of treatment, such persons are not allowed to perform their duties.

Doctor's consultation on staphylococcal infection:

Is there a vaccine against streptococcal infection?
Answer: there are so-called staphylococcal toxoid, after the introduction of causing the formation of antitoxic antibodies, vaccines stimulate the production of antibacterial immunity is not.

I often appear boils (carbuncles, acne, etc.).What you need to drink to go?
Answer: can not engage in self-treatment of chronic staphylococcal infection manifestations.It is necessary to see a doctor - treatment of infection should be assigned individually following a detailed examination, you need to be treated the same way under the supervision of a physician.

I goiter revealed carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, an antibiotic is appointed.How long should it take?
Answer: Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus carriage inappropriate antibiotics.It is advisable to use staphylococcal bacteriophage and immunization staphylococcal toxoid.Antibiotic treatment of dysbiosis with a high content of Staphylococcus does contraindicated, as this will lead to the opposite result - more intensive breeding staph

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