Streptococcal infection - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Streptococci - it is a whole family of microorganisms.Under the microscope, they look like a chain of beads.Among this family there are non-hazardous to humans, but several species cause a fairly large number of dangerous diseases from food poisoning to purulent processes virtually anywhere in the body.
Streptococcus under a microscope
term "streptococcal infection" is defined a group of diseases caused by beta-hemolytic streptococcus.So it was called because of the properties of destroying the red blood cells.This group includes, erysipelas, scarlet fever, local and generalized inflammatory processes: abscess, cellulitis, boils, osteomyelitis, wound infection, streptococcal septicemia and endocarditis.Strep infection is the trigger for rheumatic fever (rheumatic fever), acute glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidney tissue).The closest relative of the beta-hemolytic streptococcus - pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) is the major causative agent of pneumonia, sinusitis.
Pathogenic effect of streptococcus is determined by its ability to produce toxins (poisons): streptolysin has a destructive effect on blood cells and heart tissue, eritrogenin causes dilation of small blood vessels and causes a rash, such as scarlet fever, leukocidin destroys white blood cells - one of the elements of the immune system.Furthermore streptococcus allocates enzymes facilitate penetration and spread it in the tissues.
source of infection is a sick man, possibly asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen.
main route of transmission of streptococcus - air drop further possible contact-household way - through dirty hands, contaminated health products.Penetration into the body often occurs through the respiratory tract mucosa (96-97%), possible infection through broken skin or through the umbilical wound at newborns.
In place of introduction into the organism Streptococcus developing inflammatory focus serous, purulent or necrosis of affected tissues (necrosis).Singling out specific enzymes, streptococcus overcome local barriers and penetrate into the blood and lymphatic system, causing the formation of pockets of streptococcal infection in distant organs (heart, bones, etc.), Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Toxins secreted by streptococcus, cause a sharp rise in temperature, vomiting, headache, disturbance of consciousness (more often in scarlet fever, erysipelas, sepsis).Not less significant, and the so-called allergy syndrome: the body of the patient develops an allergic reaction to components of the cell wall of streptococcus in which the kidneys are damaged by its own immune system, heart and joints.Immunity after streptococcal infection is unstable, so people can get sick several times streptococcal diseases (with the exception of one of the components - against toxins produced by streptococcus, it remains for life, providing protection against re scarlet fever disease).
symptoms of streptococcal infection
briefly consider the particular manifestations of streptococcal infection.
Scarlet fever .Purple fever called scarlet fever in the 17th century because of one of its manifestations - abundant spot rash.Scarlet fever occurs with high fever, severe intoxication.One of the signs of scarlet fever - inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis, angina).The disease begins acutely with fever, general weakness, headache, pain in the throat when swallowing, the rise in body temperature to 38-39˚.After 6-12 hours after onset rash, beginning more noticeable on the hands, feet, upper body.Maximum development of the rash reaches 2-3 day illness, gradually fading to the beginning of the second week.
symptoms of streptococcal infection
If a person has immunity against the toxin of streptococcus, then infected by this pathogen, people do not become ill with scarlet fever, and sore throat.
Angina - an inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils (often palatal).It transferred a sore throat in the absence of protivostreptokokkovogo treatment, most often the cause of diseases of the autoimmune processes that lead to heart disease and kidney failure.The probability of angina depends on the state of local immunity of the tonsils: the lower it is - the more likely to be ill with angina.Reduced total immunity under the influence of hypothermia, adverse environmental conditions also increase the likelihood of angina.
overcome local tonsils protective barriers Streptococcus begins to multiply and produce a variety of substances causing inflammation, which may be in nature catarrhal, follicular, lacunar and necrotic.The penetration of streptococci and their waste products through the lymphatic pathways in the lymph nodes causing them acute inflammation.When the failure of the barrier function of tissue surrounding the tonsil streptococci can penetrate the tissue around the tonsils, causing them inflammation (called peritonzillit, peritonsillar abscess), and the penetration of the blood can lead to sepsis.Absorbed into the blood streptococci metabolic products cause a violation of thermoregulation, and the defeat of body tissues and in the first place - the central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, liver, blood vessels, infarction, and others.
incubation period for angina is 1-2 days.Start acute disease.The most common among full health appear chills, weakness, headache, aches in the joints, pain in the throat when swallowing.Fever lasts for 15-30 minutes, then there is a feeling of heat.In severe forms of the disease fever continues for a long period, and repeated the next day.Headache dull, it has no definite localization persists for 2-3 days.Aches in joints, lower back appears almost simultaneously with a fever and lasts for 1-2 days.Sore throat, at first small, disturbed only when swallowing, then gradually increases, becomes constant, reaches maximum severity on the second day.Rash with angina does not happen.Tonsils with angina increased, with a yellow-white purulent plaque or white bubbles (follicles).
Rozsa - it is not expressive word, and another disease caused by streptococcus.The disease is as common signs of infection - headache, fever up to 39-40˚, chills, weakness, muscle pain, and specific - inflammation of skin.Land affected skin rises above the healthy, it has a bright uniform (red) color and clear boundaries.Depending on the severity of the disease of the skin lesion may be limited to site redness, but in severe cases, may appear and bubbles and hemorrhages.
bone marrow inflammation , covering all layers of the bone called osteomyelitis .Streptococcus may be its cause in 6-8% of cases.The disease is manifested by purulent lesions of bone marrow.bone substance dies, an abscess formed, which soon breaks out.
extreme manifestation of streptococcal infection is sepsis.This disease develops in people with sharply reduced immunity.Of primary focus pathogen carried by the blood throughout the body, there are more and more infection foci - abscesses in the liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, bones, joints, etc.The disease may take the form of lightning, with the death of the patient within 2-3 days, but can last for years (the so-called hroniosepsis).
diagnosis of streptococcal infection
diagnosis of streptococcal infection is made on the basis of symptoms.To clarify the nature of the disease (the degree of reaction of the body), as well as to prevent possible complications patients underwent blood tests, urinalysis, electrocardiography.To clarify the type of pathogen conducted bacteriological tests - crops biological material with pockets of infection (eg, swabs from tonsils, lesions on the skin, mucus from the lungs.).Establishing the diagnosis, the doctor must distinguish disease streptococcal nature of diphtheria (tonsils defeat similar to angina), rubella and measles (rash, similar to those with milder forms of scarlet fever), infectious mononucleosis (sore throat), dermatitis and eczema (similar to a skin lesion aterysipelas).
treatment of streptococcal infection
treatment of streptococcal infection is carried out with the use of antibiotics penicillin: penicillin G, ampicillin, bicillin Bitsilli 3 or 5 on the third or fourth day after the beginning of treatment with penicillin.Resistance to penicillin antibiotics are not able to buy streptococci.If allergy to penicillin may be treated with antibiotics erythromycin series (erythromycin, oleandomycin).Drugs group sulfonamides (sulfadimetoksin, co-trimoxazole) and tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline) are not effective and are not recommended for the treatment, their use may result in asymptomatic carriage (carrier will infect others).By the end of antibiotic treatment prescribers normalize intestinal microflora (Linex, baktisubtil).
for removing toxins from the body you need to drink plenty of liquids up to 3 liters of fluid a day (tea, juice, fruit juices or just water).With the medical purpose of bracing and taking vitamin C, which has the ability to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and to participate in the removal of toxins.
Combination drugs such as paracetamol koldreks, Theraflu can be used, but a short time, since their use may arise welfare visibility that is the cause of failure of treatment and complications.
throat gargle preparations are not able to influence not only on Streptococcus located deep tissues, but also on the surface.Therefore, rinse used more hygienic than for medicinal purposes.Rinse preferably more than pastilles for sucking, as in the first case and the exciter output is washed out, and the second swallowed.
sick person diet should be easily digestible (the body does not need to spend extra forces on the breakdown of food), with enough vitamins.
Traditional methods of treatment of streptococcal infection
Traditional methods of treatment of streptococcal infection will benefit greatly from a sick person, but as a single or an independent method of treatment is not suitable.Taking the decision to refuse from the traditional (antibiotic) treatment methods, people should understand that he takes responsibility for the possible occurrence of severe complications of the infection.Drugs used in folk medicine, are represented mainly by infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants.This berry extracts that contain high amounts of vitamins (rosehip, cranberry, raspberry) - their use strengthens the body's defenses and contributes to the rapid removal of toxins, as this is the purpose of the use of plant infusions with diuretic properties (cranberry leaf, bearberry).Broth plants have astringent, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties (oak bark, willow bark, chamomile, series) are used both internally and externally as a rinse and lotions.Thermal procedures, such as bath with brooms and decoctions of medicinal herbs, can be carried out during the recovery period, but without the frills: the overheating is also bad for the body, as well as hypothermia, mechanical action on the hearth on the skin can lead to an exacerbation of the process.If the treatment of the recipe may seem complicated, it is doubtful that from him is abandoned in favor of the simple proven tools.
Using traditional methods, it is not necessary to go to extremes: for example, some "healers" offer to use as a treatment lotion with urine and manure, even fresh!
prevention of streptococcal infection is in compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, care homes and public places.Hardening and sport contribute to the strengthening of protective properties of the organism.A healthy, balanced diet important component of protection against any disease.
Bad habits: smoking and alcohol abuse not only reduce the effectiveness of general and local safety barriers, but also adversely affect the outcome of the disease, increasing the risk of complications.Timely processing of micro traumas (eg, iodine), and reduce the risk of penetration of the pathogen in the wound.If in the immediate vicinity there are sick streptococcal infection, they should be isolated at the time of treatment.
Doctor's consultation on Streptococcal infection.
Is there a vaccination against streptococcal infection?
Answer: No, the vaccine against beta-hemolytic streptococci are not developed.There is a vaccine from its "relative" pneumococcus.
Can I get sick with scarlet fever twice?
Answer: Yes, but it is a theory.In practice, this happens very rarely
What is the duration of a course of antibiotics?Can you cancel early?
Answer: The standard course of antibiotics is 7-10 days.At the discretion of the course may be shortened to 5 days, or extended up to 2 weeks.Self-cut course is strongly recommended.
that the effectiveness of sprays or gargling (bryzgalki)?
Answer: Both are great medical significance are not.Rinse more preferably hygienic purposes, to remove the products of inflammation.The structure consists of sprays often ineffective in streptococcal infections sulfonamides.
In what terms can arise complications of streptococcal infection?
Answer: Complications may occur in a period of 1-2 days to 4 weeks.been ill for observation and gentle treatment may continue for up to 3 months
therapists Juice SV