Teniarinhoza ( bovine tapeworm ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
teniarinhoza biogelmintozom a chronic course, a recorded everywhere.The high incidence of this disease registered in the countries of Africa, South America and Australia.In Russia, a high incidence is registered in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, the Chechen Republic, the Republic of Altai, Komi, Dagestan and others, which ranges from 1.1 to 10 or more cases per 100 thousand. Population.In Russia, in addition to the above-described teniarinhoza regions at a specific frequency occurs in Udmurtia, Perm Territory, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Novosibirsk Region, the Krasnodar Territory, the Orenburg region, the Republic of Mariel.On the other territories of the Russian Federation may be registered isolated cases teniarinhoza with low morbidity in the region.
teniarinhoza - parasitological human disease caused by helminth bovine tapeworm, and is characterized by dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and a tendency to chronic course of the disease.
Causes of teniarinhoza
Pathogen helminthiasis - a representative of the class Tapeworms, kind of chain - bovine tapeworm (Toeniarhinchus saginatus).This is a rather large worms on average 6-7 meters in length (from 4 to 12 meters).Bovine tapeworm consists of a head, neck and proglottids or strobill (segments), the number of which is large - up to 2000 pcs.Mature segments, as in other helminths, are placed in the distal and have mature uterus (the parasite is a hermaphrodite, respectively), they are filled with hexacanth (eggs) in an amount of up to 150 pieces in each segment.Features tapeworm - 4 suction cups on his head, the ability of segments independently crawl through the grass, the presence of each segment of their own reproductive system.
About konchatelnym host is a human.In humans, the parasite mature individuals bovine tapeworm, respectively person produces eggs with faeces into the environment.Segments of tapeworm can independently after defecation crawl and move on the body of the patient.Segments are allocated on the 80th day after the date of infection (infection).
mature individuals bovine tapeworm
Intermediate host - cattle, deer, zebra, yak, buffalo and others.Intermediate host becomes infected by eating hexacanth during feeding (with grass, ground).The muscle tissue is the development of cysticerci or Finns (tapeworm larvae), which is dangerous for human infection after an average of 4-5 months.
Intermediate host bovine tapeworm, and beef tapeworm infection source of infection for humans
infection mechanism - nutritional and way - the food. human infection occurs through raw or undercooked processed meats containing Finns (invasive larvae). sick person to the people around them do not contagious hexacanth must go all the way to the development of the larvae in the intermediate host, which are dangerous to human infection.
Susceptibility to teniarinhoza general, more likely to fall ill adult persons.
hexacanth bovine tapeworm
cycle of bovine tapeworm:
Eggs with the feces get into the environment (they are located in strobilae - segments, actively move), from the egg out hexacanth (on grass, soil,hay).Oncospheres quite stable in the environment - the temperature is kept low (practically at ground can withstand hibernation) are killed at high temperatures (up to 29-37º), under the action of ultraviolet rays.Animals are infected by eating contaminated feces of the sick person grass.larvae in the digestive tract of the intermediate host, which penetrate through the intestinal wall into the blood vessels and spread through the body.They are deposited in muscle or connective intermuscular zlementy (heart, tongue, chewing, skeletal), which are transformed into cysticercus (Finn) for about 4-5 months.
Lifespan Finns in the intermediate host - approximately 8-9 months, after which they die.If during this time the Finn ingested (eating meat measled) cysticercus scolex turns, it is attached to the mucous membrane of most 12-duodenum, and formed mature individuals.Duration bovine tapeworm parasitism in man about 20 years old.
cycle of bovine tapeworm
Immunity after suffering teniarinhoza non-sterile, unstable.
Pathogenic action of bovine tapeworm in the human body:
1) mechanical action (suction cups, activity segments), violation of the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract (catarrh of the intestinal mucosa);
2) provocation of pain while passing through the segments bauginievuyu flap (as appendicitis);
3) accumulation of tapeworms in the intestines leads to intestinal obstruction or inflammation;
4) deficiency of nutrients due to intensive use of tsepnem;
5) sensitization of the organism (the development of an allergic reaction).
There are early and late (chronic) stage teniarinhoza.Early stage little studied due to unexpressed or no symptoms, so for during the early stage is considered to be erased and oligosymptomatic.
In the chronic stage teniarinhoza are 4 main syndrome:
1) asthenovegetative (general weakness, malaise, fatigue, poor sleep, dizziness, headache, irritability);
2) dyspepsia (nausea, sometimes vomiting, heartburn, unstable chair - often an indulgence, but sometimes a tendency to constipation, hypersalivation - excessive salivation);
3) abdominal (pain in the abdomen with no fixed place of localization: it can be a pain in the stomach area - epigastric pain in the lower abdomen - abdomen left or right);
4) significant changes in appetite (decreased appetite abruptly gives way to an increase).
Sometimes one single proof of the presence of the disease is the passage of helminth and segments of the intestine without producing any complaints by the patient.
In general, the analysis of the blood: rare small eosinophilia (increase in eosinophils), leukopenia (reduction in white blood cells), anemia (reduced red blood cells, hemoglobin).
In the study of ventricular juice - decrease acidity in 70% of cases.
Radiological bowel study - marked flattening of the mucosa of the small intestine relief.
- Intestinal obstruction due to accumulation of individual tapeworm and overlap intestinal lumen;
- perforation (opening) of the intestinal wall by the chain or develop peritonitis;
- Inflammation (pancreatitis, appendicitis, cholangitis, DZHVP);
- Atypical parasite location (gall bladder, appendix, nasal cavity).
prognosis of the disease in most cases favorable.
Diagnosis is difficult because of the current malosimptomatichnogo parasitosis.Basic methods in diagnosis:
1) Collection of epidemiological history (actual consumption of raw or thermally maloobrabotannogo meat intermediate host);
2) output from the fact that intestinal parasite mobile segments during defecation and beyond;
3) candling feces and perianal scrape with the subsequent differential diagnosis between beef tapeworm infection and teniasis (microscopy detected segments with the identification of the uterus with the lateral branches - a sign ovotsist bovine tapeworm);
4) Complete blood count (eosinophilia, leukopenia, anemia);
5) X-ray detection of the parasite in the intestine.
The differential diagnosis is carried out and teniasis diphyllobothriasis.
Deworming is carried out with the help of antiparasitic agents.
1) On the eve and day of treatment - bezshlakovaya diet.
Besshlakovaya diet vklyuchaetv following principles:
- excluded from fried food, fatty, smoked, salted and sweet;
- must be present in the diet of low-fat soups, soup, rice, buckwheat, dairy products, lean fish, bread from wheat flour, fruit, tea, jelly;
- it is strictly forbidden: beets, cabbage, garlic, radish, spinach, beans, apricots, grapes, peaches, gooseberries and raspberries, millet grits, pearl barley, milk, soft drinks, coffee, chocolate, alcoholic beverages;
- eat small meals 5-6 times a day.
2) The main drug to treat teniarinhoza - fenasal one of the two schemes.
- light dinner in the evening, then ½ tspof sodium bicarbonate in ¼ cup of boiled water, through a 10-
15 minutes diluted in 1/2 cup sugar water slurry fenasala (doctor will prescribe the dose, the average for an adult is 2-3 oz.);
- on an empty stomach in the morning the same procedure in the same sequence.
dies and goes naturally with the act of defecation, no additional measures need not take after receiving fenasala parasite.
patient should change clothes every day. treatment on an outpatient basis.The effectiveness of the treatment is assessed by the absence of bovine tapeworm segments in the faeces over the following 3 months.
3) alternative drug - biltricid (praziquantel) a single dose, which prescribes
4) Phytotherapy (male fern extract capsules dry, pumpkin seeds).
eve deworming put a cleansing enema, the enema is made and in the morning on the day of de-worming, after taking the drug (1.5 hours) give a saline laxative.All dose patient drinks for 30 minutes (more often it gelatine capsules).If within 3 hours of the chair was not, then again put a cleansing enema, it will help the exit of the parasite from the intestine.
monitoring the effectiveness of treatment is carried out in 3-4 months.Patients were followed 2 years 2 times a year.
- exclude the possibility of eating raw or half-baked meat (beef).
- Carefully inspect the meat before processing to determine the presence therein Finn (bovine tapeworm larvae), larvae in meat is not always visible, but if you carefully look closely, you'll see.
tapeworm Finns bovine meat
- Careful heat treatment of meat in order to avoid invasive helminth: the temperature at least 80 degrees inside the piece and the duration of at least 1 hour;measled meat can not withstand prolonged freezing (at -15 degrees for 5 days).
- careful attitude to their own health (with the appearance of symptoms of the disease or discomfort in the anal area, access to a doctor for examination and possible de-worming).
- Survey epidemiological.indications of certain professions: the shepherds, milkmaids, calf, cattle breeders.
- study carcasses of cattle for the presence of the Finn at meat.
infectious disease doctor Bykov NI