Teniasis ( pork tapeworm ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
teniasis has a preferential distribution in areas where pigs are widely engaged.It is in these countries recorded a high level of infection of pigs that sometimes reaches 35% of their total population.One such example is Taiwan, China, South Korea, Africa and Latin America.
teniasis (pork tapeworm armed tapeworm) - a parasitic disease of humans and animals caused by helminth pork tapeworm, is characterized by a primary lesion of the digestive system - namely the small intestine - the principal place of localization of the parasite.
teniasis, mature individuals pork tapeworm
Geographical distribution teniasis.
endemic foci teniasis determined primarily by the frequency of occurrence of infected pigs - intermediate host teniasis.These foci are united in several endemic zones teniasis:
1) African Region (Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire and others), which in addition to the presence of animal infestation observed low social level of the population.
2) Asian zone teniasis (South Korea, China, Taiw
3) Latin American Region (Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua, and others), which is also up to 20% of pigs are infected, up to 300 thousand people are infected by the parasite.
In the countries of the former USSR taeniasis occur with some frequency in the Ukraine (western part), in Belarus.In Russia, for disturbing teniasis remains Krasnoyarsk region.
Causes infection teniasis
Pathogen teniasis - tape helminth Taenia solium (pork tapeworm armed tapeworm) having a flat (ribbonlike) body length of 3-4 meters, consisting of scolex with 4 suckers muscle, neck, strobila (up to 1000segments).
There are a number of differences from the pork tapeworm bull:
1) In contrast to bovine tapeworm in pigs head (scolex) with 2 rows of hooks up to 32 units (hence the name "armed").
2) End (hermaphrodite) segments of the pork tapeworm, unlike bovine elongated, have an ovary with extra third slice (this differential diagnostic sign of the laboratory).
3) The end segments are fixed, thus can not independently move around and go to the perianal area of the patient.
4) pork tapeworm eggs are infectious to humans (unlike bovine tapeworm eggs).In each segment they may contain up to 50 000 units.Eggs (hexacanth) pork tapeworm virtually indistinguishable from the bovine - within 6 tikryuchnye buds, so the differentiation is carried out only in the study of the end segments.
teniasis, pork tapeworm scolex
distinguish these chain is important, because treatment teniasis has its own peculiarities.
infection Source teniasis
final host pork tapeworm - the man in the body which infests mature individuals of the parasite (the small intestine) and, accordingly, there is an allocation of segments with hexacanth with feces.Mature individuals parasite in the human body for decades.
Intermediate host - the pig home, a wild boar.Rare intermediate hosts - cats, dogs, monkeys, and sometimes people.Their body is formed from hexacanth Finn (pork tapeworm larvae) and the disease is caused by the larvae parasitism it.In humans, the disease caused by tapeworm larvae is called cysticercosis .
teniasis, hexacanth pork tapeworm
infection mechanism - nutritional path - food.Humans can be infected teniasis when consuming raw or insufficiently cooked meat containing the Finns (tapeworm larvae).
At the same time the patient himself is contagious to others and yourself as highlights parasite eggs.The difference is that he will infect the people and not themselves teniasis and cysticercosis (larval stage of the tapeworm), which is even more difficult to treat.
cycle of pork tapeworm:
Adults mature individuals pork tapeworm parasitic in the small intestine of the definitive host - humans.With feces end segments are allocated to the external environment.In the external environment of the segments are allocated hexacanth that enter the body by eating their pigs hexacanth contaminated waste.With the destruction of shell eggs in the stomach or intestine of the intermediate host hexacanth can freely penetrate into the blood vessels and spread throughout the body.Most of them 2-3 days accumulates in muscle tissue.Finns or cysticerci (larvae pork tapeworm), which have a bubble form, formed by 60-70 days after infection.Main place of localization of the Finn - intermuscular connective tissue, but they can also form in other organs and tissues (for cysticercosis).Cysticerci are vesicles with a diameter up to 10 mm of clear liquid inside and fixed to the inner wall of the head of tapeworm bubble.
teniasis, development cycle
Finns are not resistant to high and low temperatures.When the temperature inside the piece 80 ° Finns reliably neutralized.Extract with at least 1 hour.For disposal of carcasses of pigs with the Finns take a long freeze meat to minus 12-15 ° for 10 days.
In the body of the final host Finns get by eating meat or raw or half-baked infected with cysticerci.It in the intestines of cysticerci formed mature individuals pork tapeworm .After 2 months after infection in individuals of tapeworm in the intestine appear mature segments of eggs.
Symptoms human teniasis
Pathogenic action of pork tapeworm in the human body when teniasis (parasite mature individuals pork tapeworm in the intestine):
1), toxic and allergic effects on the patient's body tapeworm (the development of an allergic reaction or an allergic disposition of the body).
2) Mechanical action tapeworm (by attaching hooks to the intestinal wall there is a mechanical irritation with its development of the intestinal mucosa inflammation).
3) Competitive absorption of nutrients for the host of his own life.
Clinical symptoms are mainly related to parasitological effects on the digestive system of the patient, and are grouped into various syndromes:
1) asthenic-neurotic syndrome (the patient's dizziness, headache, fainting, insomnia, irritability);
2) dyspeptic syndrome (disturbance of appetite - most of its decline, discomfort in the intestinal region after eating, belching);
3) abdominal syndrome (occurrence of abdominal pain from aching pain Just noticeable to cramping and intensive).
The general analysis of blood often serious violations do not occur in some patients kolichesktvo increase of eosinophils (eosinophilia), and iron deficiency anemia.
If a person is an intermediate host - in which the disease is extremely difficult (for more details see "Cysticercosis") - develops cysticercosis (cysticercus invasive larvae accumulate in the muscle and connective tissue).
Immunity after suffering teniasis unstable, possibly re-infection.
preliminary diagnosis teniasis exhibited on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data.Clinical symptoms are non-specific, therefore it is necessary to conduct a thorough differential diagnosis (to exclude gastrointestinal disease - bacterial gastroenteritis and viral etiology, cholecystitis, rectal disease, Crohn's disease, and others).To help to the initial diagnosis - collecting epidemiological history (eating suspicious, raw or insufficiently processed meats and meat without prior veterinary examination).
final diagnosis is after thorough laboratory examination:
1) The study of stool in order to detect scraps strobe - end segments, which do not crawl.Limit (hermaphrodite) segments of the pork tapeworm, unlike bovine elongated, have an ovary with extra third slice (this differential diagnostic sign of the laboratory).
2) candling perianal scrape with the aim of detecting the end segments (they are fixed).The differential feature of the same.
3) Serological methods - blood tests to detect specific antibodies to the antigens of pork tapeworm (longer true for cysticercosis in which difficult stool diagnostics).
4) Additional methods: general blood test (eosinophilia, hypochromic anemia), coprogram, instrumental techniques (radiography and Skopje).
All patients should receive treatment in a hospital because of the risk of cysticercosis in the destruction of eggs and shells hexacanth drift into the general circulation.
Compliance regime diet including: diet (Table) №13, which is shown in acute infectious diseases, parasitic diseases.Diet - 4-5 times a day in small portions.It should not be long "hungry" periods between meals.A diet with caloric, reduced to a large extent due to the fats and carbohydrates, with a high content of vitamins
Daily diet: protein - 75-80 g (60-70% of animals);fat - 60-70 g;carbohydrates - 300-350 g;energotsennost - 2200-2300 kcal
Recommended foods and dishes:
wheat dried bread;
low-fat meat and fish broths, soups vegetable broth, slimy decoctions of cereals;
lean meats, poultry and fish;
lactic acid drinks, cottage cheese;
pureed porridge of rice, semolina and buckwheat;
potatoes, carrots, beets, cauliflower, ripe tomatoes;
soft ripe fruits and berries, broth hips;sugar, honey, jam, jam, marmalade.
Excluded products and dishes:
rye and any fresh bread, pastries;
fatty broth, soup, borscht;
fatty meats, poultry, fish, sausage, smoked, salted fish, canned;
whole milk and cream, fat sour cream, cheese;
millet, pearl barley and cereals, pasta;
cabbage, radishes, radish, onion, garlic, cucumbers, beans;
chocolate, cakes, cocoa
a) Drugs that cause decay gate and the possible development of cysticercosis contraindicated (fenasal, etc.).
intestinal taeniasis possible appointment of a single praziquantel (biltricid), the dosage the doctor prescribes.The drug paralyzes the parasite, the latter ceases to be held for the intestinal wall and comes out with the faeces.
extract of male fern helminth also causes muscle paralysis and its quick death.Two days in a patient of dietary regime overnight saline laxative (magnesium sulfate).Third day: enema, and then half an hour to drink the entire dose fern (on average 4-7 grams for an adult), drinking water, 40-50 minutes once a saline laxative.Breakfast is only 1-1.5 hours.In the absence of a chair for a further 3 hours put enema.
Pumpkin seeds: 500 grams of seeds pour boiling water so that they were covered with water and a water bath for 1,5-2 hours.Then, in the morning on an empty stomach taking seeds brewed with broth for 30-40 minutes.After 2 hours, saline laxative.
b) required the presence of the chair within 2-2.5 hours after treatment, as further paralyzing effect fern and pumpkin seeds ends.
c) Do not allow vomiting to avoid skidding segments of the parasite in the stomach and re-infection.
d) After the release of helminth investigate its integrity in the preservation inevitably end segments of the intestine.
Dispensary observation after suffering teniasis is set for a period of 4 months from the therapy control - 4-hkratnoe study of feces at intervals of 1 month.
- acquisition of meat products only in specialized large food establishments.
- Visual examination of the purchased meat for the presence therein Finn (cysticerci) pork tapeworm and any suspicious inclusions.
teniasis Finns tapeworm in raw meat
- Eating only well-processed meats.Recall: the temperature inside a piece of more than 80 ° C for one hour.Long-term freezing of meat for 10 days and leads to the death of the Finn.
- not try the raw beef in the cooking process.
- monitor their own health and that of their loved ones, and in a timely manner to contact a doctor if onset of symptoms.
- Sanitary-veterinary control of the state of pig meat on meat processing plants.
- Survey decreed persons for invasiveness (pig workers, meat processing plants).
infectious disease doctor Bykov NI