Foot and mouth disease - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Foot and mouth disease (Aphtae epizoolicae) - an acute, viral infection zooanatraponoznaya with fecal-oral mechanism of transmission is characterized by aphthous lesions of the oral mucosa and skin lesions brushes occurring against the backdrop of feverish intoxication syndrome.
Foot and mouth disease known to man for more than 400 years and its pathogen was first opened in 1897 and Leffler Frot.Artiodactyl animals have marked salivation, aphthous changes in oral lesion sites of hairless scalp udder as myocardium and skeletal muscle.Over time, we began to notice similar symptoms in humans have been in contact with infected animals.
Pathogen Pathogen - RNA virus belonging to the family of pikornovirusov (Picornaviridae: pico-small, rna- RNA), the genus aphthovirus (Aphtovirus).FMD virus is ascribed to the highly resistant groups, because it is not valid neither drying nor disinfectants.Mountain pastures stored year in wastewater on the clothes and the coat, as well as sausages - 3 months, room -
Due to the highly contagious and stability, the virus has not lost its relevance today.Foot and mouth disease make registration in many countries of the world and according to the latest data (2003), each year are disadvantaged by this disease about 70 countries around the world.Prior to 1989, periodic outbreaks of the disease were recorded in Russia.In modern conditions, with adequate preventive equipment of people FMD little sick, but livestock FMD caused great economic damage.In a matter of hours from one sick animal can be infected hundreds.Sick animals must be destroyed.
symptoms of FMD in animals
reasons of infection of FMD
source and reservoir - cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, very rarely - dogs, cats, horses, poultry - infection occurs through close contact with patientsanimals and the environment contaminated by viruses (ie place a high obsemenёnnostyu virus).The minor role in the spread is given to rodents, flies and ticks.infection mechanism - fecal-oral (through food), contact and contact-household, ie either by direct contact with sick animals aphthae, or by contact with contaminated objects.For animals and relevant aerogenic path (airborne).Contributing factors are microtrauma of the skin.
symptoms of FMD
incubation period - 2-12 days, but on average 3-8 days.This period is counted from the moment of penetration of the pathogen into the body before the onset of symptoms.Infection atriums is the mucous membrane or skin microtrauma - pathogen penetrates through them and a part of the pathogen remains there, and part of the spreads throughout the body via the blood.Once the number reaches a certain concentration of bacteria (including the infections at the gate), there is a period of clinical manifestations.
period of clinical manifestations - the beginning of an acute disease without previous symptoms.FMD starts with feverish intoxication syndrome: fever, myalgia, a gradual rise in temperature within 2 days of high achievement by the end of the second day - 38-40 ° C and derzhet this temperature for a week.Against the backdrop of feverish intoxication syndrome gradually increase the symptoms of cutaneous manifestations and location of these changes depends on the primary-contacted portion, ie it can beat or hands when caring for a sick animal or mouth when consuming infected products).
symptoms of FMD on
hands in the mouth, these changes are characterized by symptoms of stomatitis, burning sensation in the mouth, redness of the mucous membrane of the lips / gums / throat / cheek / tongue with further edema.Also rhinitis can occur in parallel, conjunctivitis, urethritis.
Apthae with foot and mouth disease on the tongue and hands
With the spread through the body, the agent continues to be fixed on epithelial cells, appear secondary inflammatory changes in the skin of the hands (especially in okolonogtevoy region and interdigital folds), 1-2 daysthere are specific inflammatory changes in the place where they were swelling and redness - aphthae appear.
Apthae superficial ulcerations, painful on contact with any surface, greatly complicating the act of chewing and swallowing, as an accompanying feature is hypersalivation (increased salivation).Localization of the AFL - on the edge of the tongue on the gums, on the palate and teeth.The size of these ulcers can be from grains to peas.
Almost simultaneously, at intervals of 1-2 days, such formations appear and inflammatory skin areas (interdigital and periungual region).After 2-3 days after the onset, aphthae opened, forming erosions or ulcers, speech and swallowing become even more difficult, lips and tongue covered with bloom and crusts.Perhaps podsypanie, ie the formation of new AFL, which makes prolonged illness and prone to chronic course, because often these ulcerations joins a secondary bacterial infection.
diagnosis of FMD
• According to clinical and epidemiological data;
• Conducting a biological sample to guinea pigs;Serological methods
• using RAC (kompelmenta binding reaction) - for the quantitative determination of the antibody and complement-fixing antigen, in other words to identify the antigens.HAI (hemagglutination inhibition) - determine the increase in antibody titer.
• Etiotropic treatment directed to the use of antiviral drugs shirokospektornyh (izoprinozin, Arbidol) and immunomodulators and immunostimulants in the form viferona, interferon and tsikloferona.Also used symptomatic and pathogenetic treatment according to the predominant symptoms.
forecast is not favorable in the treatment and as such specific complications, but in children secondary aphthae can be localized in the digestive tract and cause symptoms of gastroenteritis.At the site of skin AFL often recorded secondary bacterial complications.
Prevention of FMD
• Vaccination of animals attenuated strain of the pathogen, obtained by multiple passage and elimination of pathogenicity.
• Compliance with the rules of sanitary regulations in the care of sick animals.
FMD disease transmitted from person to person, not registered.After suffering a disease formed immunity, but the duration of its activity has not been established.
therapists Shabanova I.E