Pituitary adenoma .Microadenoma pituitary .Prolactinoma - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Pituitary adenomas often arise from cells of the anterior pituitary gland responsible for producing hormones that regulate many important body functions.These tumors are identified with a frequency of 2 persons per 100 000 population, but their true prevalence is difficult to establish, becausemany of them for a long time there are no symptoms.
symptoms of pituitary adenomas and microadenomas
Symptoms of pituitary adenomas are as endocrine disorders, and symptoms of compression of normal pituitary gland and adjacent structures of the brain.Symptoms of compression manifest headache, sometimes epileptic seizures, impaired acuity and visual field loss, as well as violation of the eye movement.
endocrinological disorders can be varied depending on the type of hormonal activity of the tumor.The most common tumor, detected in 40% of cases, is prolaktinoma .In the case of prolactin in addition to compression of the symptoms women have menstrual disorders, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), discharge of
Tumors that do not produce hormones disrupt their formation in normal pituitary gland, resulting in a reduction of their level in the body.
main method of diagnosis is the MRI, the tumor which allows to identify and to assess its position in the Turkish saddle and relationships with the surrounding brain structures, especially chiasm and optic nerve.In the event of unavailability of MRI for suspected pituitary adenoma used x-ray head with an eye to the Turkish saddle, the study of the visual fields.When podazrenii on hyperprolactinemia - sit on the pituitary hormone prolactin analysis.Additional research on thyroid hormones, as pituitary adenoma and microadenoma producing prolactin, often occur against the background of current long-term hypothyroidism.
treatment of pituitary adenomas and microadenomas
Methods of treatment of pituitary adenomas may be of medical, surgical and radiation.The decision on a particular method of treatment of pituitary adenomas taken individually for each patient.Some tumors (eg, prolactinoma) are treatable medical drugs.
Surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas are divided into transcranial (with a craniotomy) and Transsphenoidal (with access through the main sinus).Radiation therapy is used as an adjunct to surgical treatment in the case of incompletely resected to prevent their recurrence.
Radiosurgery is an effective treatment of small pituitary adenomas (largest diameter of less than 30 mm).According to the existing worldwide standards, Gamma Knife should be used for the treatment of residual cancer after surgical removal.Thus radiosurgery can be a method of treating hormonally active and inactive tumors.Especially this method of treatment is shown in the propagation of adenomas in the cavernous sinus.Required to prevent further tumor growth once delivered radiation dose, without affecting the surrounding brain structures, accessible only to within Gamma Knife (0.5 mm).Radiosurgery is also used for the treatment of adenoma recurrence after radiotherapy.As the primary treatment of pituitary adenomas radiosurgery is used only in the event of failure of the patient from surgery or impossibility of its implementation because the patient's condition.
radiosurgery The aim is to achieve tumor control (stabilization or reduction in size) and the normalization of endocrine disorders that relieves the patient from having a long (sometimes lifelong) supplementation.
advantages of radiosurgery is the absence of surgical complications, as well as the risk of general anesthesia.Mortality in the treatment of Gamma Knife to zero.Hospitalization in most cases is not required.Treatment is carried out in one day.Most patients return to their normal activities the next day after surgery.