Hyperparathyroidism - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Hyperparathyroidism - a disease associated with increased production of parathyroid hormone as modified by the parathyroid gland, which is why there is a chronic increase in blood calcium and is characterized by a pathological change in the first place in the bones and kidneys.
Women suffer more often 2-3 times than men.The most commonly affected age - 20-50 years.
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism
Clinical manifestations giperparatireozav whichever is greater hit (bone, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, neurological and psychic sphere), as it were completed in certain groups.Against the background of this distinguished form hyperparathyroidism , having a certain clinical picture.
- psycho-neurological form.
But for any symptoms of the disease is characterized by early symptoms:
- general muscle weakness, severe muscle weakness of hands and feet;fatigue, lethargy;sick is difficult to stand, sit, walk, climb stairs, they stumble when walking;
- swinging "duck" gait (the sick, as if transshipped from side to side;
- pain in the feet (posed by the development of flatfoot due to the destruction of the foot muscles);
- severe thirst and frequent, excessive urination (due toexcess calcium, which blocks the hormone that regulates urination - antidiuretic);.
- loosening and loss of healthy teeth;
- significant weight loss (up to exhaustion)
Bone shape x arakterizuetsya three main symptoms - common osteoporosis (thinning,. bending and partial complete resorption of bone), the formation of cysts (cavity with liquid contents), and pathological fractures For these forms of the disease are characterized by:
- bone pain, especially in the spine pulling, aching, worse on exertion;
- frequent spontaneous fractures with little physical exertion, after which produce false joints (ie, not found in the normal human body).Fractures often undergo shoulder bones, the tibia, ribs, hip;
- changing the shape of various parts of the skeleton due to incorrect fracture healing;
- decrease in growth due to osteoporosis and vertebral fracture;
- bones are more flexible, have lost their firmness.
In the kidney there is a reduction of calcium absorption and increased its content in the blood is known to inhibit the production of antidiuretic hormone (regulates urinary function), in connection with which the following symptoms occur: polyuria (frequent, excessive urination), thirst, educationkidney stones (nephrolithiasis), multiple deposition of crystals of calcium salts in the kidneys (nephrocalcinosis).It often takes place secretly, while there are lower back pain.
In the gastro-intestinal form hyperparathyroidism experience the following symptoms: nausea, repeated vomiting, constipation, bloating, loss of appetite, leading to severe weight loss, frequent ulceration 12 duodenal ulcer with severe symptoms and healing long-term treatment,may develop acute inflammation of the pancreas.
For patients with abnormal patterns of mental activity: rapid mental fatigue, drowsiness, decreased mental capacity, frequent depression, acute course of disease there are visual, auditory hallucinations, full and partial loss of voluntary movements.
most common cause of the disease is a tumor of the parathyroid glands.
Depending on the causes of the disease distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, and psevdogiperparatireoz.
- primary hyperthyroidism in most cases occurs due to the formation of adenoma (benign tumor) of the parathyroid glands - 80-85% of cases.In 10% of cases, the disease is due to carcinoma (malignant tumor) or hyperplasia (normal proliferation and increased cancer cell).
- Secondary Hyperparathyroidism - secondary gain functions, proliferation and swollen glands during prolonged reduced calcium content and the elevated levels of phosphate in the blood.This increases the production of parathyroid hormone.This is observed in chronic renal failure.
- Tertiary hyperparathyroidism - the development of a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands and increased production of parathyroid hormone due to the continued existence of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
- Psevdogiperparatireoz - generation PTH tumors arising not from parathyroid cells.
diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism
diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is set at:
- presence specific to the symptoms of the disease;
- parathyroid X-ray - to detect the presence of tumor in the gland;
- According to the blood test: will show increased concentration of calcium in the blood (norm 2,25-2,75 mmol / l), an increase in its allocation in the urine (the rate of 200-400 mg per day.).The content of phosphorus in the blood than normal reduced in urine - increased.
- thyroid ultrasound reveal an increase in the parathyroid glands.
treatment of hyperparathyroidism
surgical treatment - removal of adenomas (benign tumor) or enlarged parathyroid glands.With the development of hyperparathyroid crisis requires surgery to emergency indications.Conservative
(treatment with drugs, diet and others.) Treatment aimed at lowering blood calcium and includes excessive drinking, administering drugs.