Hypothyroidism ( Myxedema ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Endocrine Diseases

Thyroid - is one of the organs of the endocrine system that produces hormones: thyroxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin, which are involved in many processes in our body.

The thyroid gland is often the scene of inflammation, as it is located in the neck, in the immediate vicinity of frequently becoming infected organs, is susceptible to the influence of adverse environmental factors, very richly supplied with blood and is the scene of almost biochemical processes.

Violation of the normal state of the thyroid gland leads to disruption of hormone secretion.The most common diseases are: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, diffuse and nodular goiter of the thyroid gland.The main syndromes of thyroid diseases otrrazhayut violation of not only its features, but also growth.

Thyroid disease - is the most common among residents of the problem.In recent years, growth in Moscow of cases of thyroid dysfunction increased significantly.This is due to the deterioration of the ecological situation in the

city and the lack of measures for the prevention of iodine.

prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults Moskvysostavlyaet 0.5-1% among novorozhdennyh- 0.025%, and among those over 65let- 2-4%.

What is the thyroid gland?

thyroid gland - is one of the organs of the endocrine system that produces hormones: thyroxine, triiodothyronine, calcitonin, which are involved in these processes of our body:

  • regulation of metabolism;
  • increase heat transfer;
  • enhancing oxidation and consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates that are essential for the body's energy;
  • allocation of water and potassium from the body;
  • the regulation of growth and development;
  • activation of the adrenal activity, genital and breast cancer;
  • have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.

The thyroid gland is often the scene of inflammation, as it is located in the neck, in the immediate vicinity of frequently becoming infected organs, is susceptible to the influence of adverse environmental factors, very richly supplied with blood and is the scene of almost biochemical processes.

Violation of the normal state of the thyroid gland leads to disruption of hormone secretion.The most common diseases are: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, nodular and diffuse goiter of the thyroid gland.The main syndromes of thyroid diseases otrrazhayut violation of not only its features, but also growth.

Understanding hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism - disease that occurs as a result of insufficient supply of organs and tissues of thyroid hormones due to lower levels of production of thyroid hormones.There are primary (when the thyroid gland lesions) and secondary (with the defeat of the pituitary and / or hypothalamic) hypothyroidism.

mechanism of development of hypothyroidism is defined by a decrease in thyroid hormone levels, which leads to the inhibition of metabolism, excretion of tissue oxygen (in excess amounts harmful to the body), reduced activity of various enzymes and gas exchange, inhibition of brain tissue and the oppression of the higher nervous activity (ie.narushenie human behavior, which is expressed in an inadequate response to different situations or inhibited reaction, or an overactive response), which is especially noticeable in children.

But in adults develops a violation of the brain that is characterized by a decrease in mental activity and intelligence, easing reactions to different situations.By reducing the work of thyroid disorders can also be observed by other endocrine organs.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

Thyroid hormones, as mentioned already above, are involved in the implementation of many body functions, thus reducing its efficiency when violations are marked by many authorities.The first and typical sign is an increase in prostate size.

changes in the body in hypothyroidism:

  1. cold, thick, edematous skin, often marked yellowness, more often on the palms of the hands in the form of spots, it accelerated age-related changes.Reduced secretion of the sebaceous and sweat glands.Brittle nails.Hair dry, brittle, thick.
  2. pale, puffy, masklike face (depletion of facial expression).On the part of the eye is observed: ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid) and eyelid edema.Hair loss of the outer third of the eyebrows.The swelling of the vocal cords and tongue leads to slow, indistinct speech, voice tone is reduced and coarsens.Language and increases its lateral surfaces and dents visible traces of the teeth..
  3. Symptoms from the cardiovascular system are manifested in the form of reduction in blood pressure (hypotension), deceleration of heart rate (bradycardia), shortness of breath, increasing even with little physical exertion, discomfort and pain in the heart and the sternum.
  4. in respiratory system observed: reduction of pulmonary ventilation (hypoventilation), which is why there is a lack of oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide.Patients with hypothyroidism are prone to bronchitis, pneumonia (pneumonia), which differ sluggish, protracted, sometimes without temperature reactions.
  5. There are a number of gastrointestinal disorders: loss of appetite, nausea, flatulence (increased formation of gas in the intestines), decreased muscle tone of the intestines and bile ducts leads to stagnation of bile in the bladder, and contributes to the formation of stones, sometimes to intestinal obstruction;
  6. a decrease in kidney allocation fluid.Reduced urinary tract tone favors the development of infections.
  7. for patients with hypothyroidism is characterized by disorders of the nervous system in the form of inhibition, reduced intelligence, sleepiness during the day and insomnia at night, slowing of speech, depression, irritable and nervousness, memory deterioration.Also observed sensitivity disorder, mostly limbs, neuralgia (nerve inflammation), accompanied by muscle pain.
  8. bone disease is not characteristic of the adult.Children can manifest itself in the form of skeletal growth in backlog and shortening of the limbs.Patients of all ages there is muscle fatigue, sometimes pain in the joints.
  9. 60-70% of patients have blood disorders.Reduction of iron occurs and B12 vitamin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to the development of "tiriogennoy anemia" (only for characteristic lesions thyroid), there may be a slight decrease in blood sugar due to slow absorption of glucose.
  10. Decreased sex drive (libido), possible infertility.
  11. Despite the lack of appetite in patients, often marked weight gain (obesity, but not typical), reducing the need for vitamins.For the majority of patients are characterized by low body temperature (hypothermia).

Causes of primary hypothyroidism

Primary hypothyroidism is due to lesions directly by the thyroid gland, resulting in a decrease in hormone production.

Causes:

  1. Complications after treatment measures:
  • surgical treatment of various thyroid diseases;
  • treatment of toxic goiter with radioactive iodine;
  • radiotherapy for malignant diseases of organs located in the neck;
  • use of iodine-containing drugs;
  • receiving glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, sulfa drugs;
  • removal of the thyroid gland.
  1. tumors, acute and chronic infections, thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), abscess, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis (a systemic disease characterized by the formation of granulomas in affected tissues);
  2. Hypoplasia - underdevelopment of the thyroid gland as a result of fetal development defects commonly in infants and children 1-2 years, often combined with deafness and cretinism.

Causes of secondary hypothyroidism

Secondary hypothyroidism develops in inflammatory or traumatic lesions of the pituitary and / or hypothalamus (a tumor, hemorrhage, necrosis, surgical removal or destruction of the pituitary gland), resulting in a violation of production of TSH, affecting the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thereby causing decrease in its functional activity.Most secondary hypothyroidism occurs when the total pituitary pathology and combined with hypogonadism (decreased function of sexual glands), an excess of growth hormone.

who often suffers hypothyroidism

Hormones - microscopic particles that are formed in close interaction and "merger" of various chemical particles and elements.These particles are very actively enter into "contact" with the cells of all organs and contribute to their normal operation.For the formation of hormones thyroid cells require a constant absorption of iodine from the blood, the lack of which can also cause a decrease in hormone concentration.Iodine is mostly found in seafood.But, unfortunately, a lot of countries, regions, cities and other populated areas far away from the sea, where the need for iodine is provided is not sufficient.In such regions, thyroid disorders are far more common.These areas are populated with up to 250 mln. People.The optimum intake of iodine for normal thyroid about 150-300 micrograms (m / kg.) Per day.Daily iodine intake of less than 80 micrograms is dangerous, because it does not allow to maintain the normal operation of the thyroid gland, which consequently leads to the development of hypothyroidism.There are substances that prevent the movement of iodine to the site of the hormones that leads to the disruption of pancreatic function.Products containing these substances are called "strumogennymi" (ie, "work" against the normal secretion of thyroid hormones).These include: turnip, cauliflower, red cabbage, mustard, rutabaga, and milk of cows that feed these products.Diet oversaturated these products, also contributes to the development of hypothyroidism.

Thyroid disease - is the most common among residents of cities such as Moscow, the problem.In recent years, growth in Moscow of cases of thyroid dysfunction increased significantly.This is due to the deterioration of the ecological situation in the city and the lack of measures for the prevention of iodine.

prevalence of hypothyroidism in the adult population of Moscow is 0.5-1%, among novorozhdennyh- 0.025%, and among those over 65let- 2-4%.

Complications hypothyroidism

most severe, often fatal complication is hypothyroid coma.There is usually when undiagnosed, untreated or poorly prolonged treatment of hypothyroidism.The most characteristic of elderly women.

Contribute to the development of this complication precipitating factors, such as: cooling, especially combined with a sedentary, deviations from the normal operation of the organs of the cardiovascular system, myocardial infarction, acute infections, psycho-emotional and muscle overload diseases or conditions that contribute to a decrease in body temperature.

hypothyroid coma is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • dry and icteric pale, cold skin;
  • slowing of heart rate (bradycardia);
  • decrease in blood pressure (hypotension);
  • rare breath;
  • decrease in urination.

Diagnosis of hypothyroidism

diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the first set based on the characteristic clinical manifestations, namely, the appearance of the patients and diagnostic laboratory tests.Thyroid failure is characterized by a decrease in iodine.In recent years, there was a possibility of direct determination of blood hormones: thyroid-stimulating (high), T3 , T4 (reduced content).

To diagnose also use ultrasonography (US), determining the time of tendon reflexes, electrocardiogram (ECG) .If necessary endocrinologist recommends a CT scan of the thyroid gland, which resulted in a diagnosis of a specialist clarifies and develops an individual course lecheniya.Inogda make a puncture (body material sampling for diagnostic purposes) to determine zlokachestvennyhobrazovany iron.

diagnosis of hypothyroid coma in the absence of medical history "hypothyroidism" diagnosis can be difficult.The major clinical manifestations of this condition are dry, pale and cold skin, slowing the heart rate (bradycardia), decreased blood pressure (hypotension), reducing and sometimes disappearance of tendon reflexes.In hypothyroid coma patient should be hospitalized immediately.

What is needed for consultation with hypothyroidism

  1. story patient doctor about his health lately.
  2. The ultrasound of the thyroid gland, made shortly before the consultation and the earlier date.
  3. results of blood tests (general and prostate hormones).
  4. Details surgeries if there were discharge summary (written in the history medical report, which contains information about the patient's condition, diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, treatment recommendations, etc.).
  5. apply or to apply treatments.
  6. Information viscera study, if any.

Treatment of hypothyroidism

method of treatment of all forms of hypothyroidism is based on the use of drugs that are synthetic analogues of thyroid hormones (thyroid drugs).The effect is within the first month of receiving treatment.At correctly picked up dose drugs are absolutely harmless, do not cause side effects, drug dependence, and hormonal changes.Dose selected carefully and gradually, taking into account the age of patients, the severity of hypothyroidism, presence of concomitant diseases and characteristics of the drug.

forecast

hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism occurs and life in adult patients with a favorable prognosis, if adequate treatment is chosen.In children with congenital hypothyroidism even with optimal treatment is practically impossible to restore the function of the brain, because of what may develop the disease, and there is growth retardation.