Thyroiditis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Endocrine Diseases

thyroiditis - inflammation of the thyroid gland.If the thyroid gland is enlarged uniformly inflamed it is called inflammation strumitom.

Depending on the origin and course of the disease distinguish between different types of tireoditov :

  1. Acute thyroiditis .
  2. Subacute thyroiditis or de Quervain.
  3. chronic fibrotic tipreoidit or goiter Riedel.
  4. chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Hoshimskogo.

Overview of subacute thyroiditis

Subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain's thyroiditis) - inflammation of the prostate schitovidenoy after past viral infections.

Most often (5-6 times than men) get sick women 30-50 years old, 3-6 weeks after a viral infection

Understanding fibrous thyroiditis (Riedel struma)

Fibrous thyroiditis - a disease characterized bythe strong growth of the connective tissue of the thyroid gland and signs of compression in the neck.

develops most often in women over 50 years.

Understanding autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis - a

chronic inflammatory process in the thyroid autoimmune origin.

autoimmune origin - is when a body's own normal cells produce antibodies (the particle "destroy" foreign cells), ieThyroid cells are recognized as foreign and begins a kind of "struggle", which leads to inflammation in the body.

disease occurs 4-7 times more frequently in women than in men.Evolve can at any age, but mainly after 60 years.

Symptoms of acute thyroiditis

Acute thyroiditis clinically expressed:

  • pain in the front of the neck, which moves in the head, the lower and the upper jaw and is enhanced by the movement of the head and swallowing;
  • is an increase in cervical lymph nodes;
  • there is a very high fever and chills;
  • at a palpation - a painful increase of the share or the whole breast.

Symptoms of subacute thyroiditis

disease usually begins acutely.Characterized by local (in the thyroid) and overall (whole body) symptoms.

Local symptoms:

  • severe pain in the thyroid gland (the front part of the neck), which is given in the neck, lower jaw, ears and back of neck;increased pain occurs when pan and tilt head, swallowing (very difficult), chewing;the pain lasts for 2-3 weeks;
  • iron in whole or in some places increased significantly compacted;
  • skin on the front of the neck (ie, over the gland) is hot, painful, hyperemic (reddened, due to increased blood flow to the skin of the neck);
  • lymph nodes (provide immune protection in the place where they are located) is not increased in the neck.

Common symptoms:

  • patients noted a strong increase in temperature is accompanied by fever;
  • general weakness, sweating;
  • headache;
  • at the beginning of the disease in most patients the phenomena of thyrotoxicosis: irritability, sweating, hot flashes, weight loss, shine in the eyes, hot, moist skin, tremor (trembling), fingers outstretched arms.

Symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis

There is a common, sometimes uneven increase in the thyroid gland when probing dense and mobile.For large size of its patient feels compression in the neck.

As the disease occurs gland dysfunction: first develop symptoms of hyperthyroidism due to the receipt of a large number of previously formed hormones, and later appeared the symptoms of hypothyroidism.

main complaints of patients:

  • thyroid enlargement;
  • difficulty in swallowing;
  • there may be weakness;
  • sense of compression of the neck;

When the thyroid function of patients worried about hot flashes, palpitations, sweating, weight loss, irritability.

Symptoms fibrous thyroiditis

Fibrous thyroiditis develops very slowly, gradually, and most importantly, his cunning is that for a long time, the general condition of the patient does not suffer, and to identify the disease difficult.The earliest symptom is difficulty in swallowing and the feeling of "lump in the throat."

When fibrous thyroiditis gets unfolded state, the patients revealed complete clinical picture of the following symptoms:

  • in patients with impaired breathing, swallowing, difficulty in speech, often poperhivayutsya during meals;
  • voice becomes hoarse;
  • thyroid gland is quite strong and evenly increased, a very dense, painless, does not move when swallowing (inactive), has a bumpy surface.Mainly affects all parts of the gland, but sometimes the location of the inflammation and possibly in one specific area.In the long-term course of the disease may acquire authority "woody" density;
  • characterized by the development of compression syndrome, which manifests itself: headache, tinnitus, visual impairment, pronounced difficulty swallowing, respiratory failure, severe vascular pulsation in the neck;
  • symptoms of hypothyroidism can be observed in the development of disease.

Causes of acute thyroiditis

Acute suppurative thyroiditis is or purulent, common (affecting the entire share or all of the thyroid gland) or local (loss toko part thereof gland).

Acute suppurative thyroiditis develops against the background of acute or chronic infection (tonzilitt - inflammation of the tonsils, pneumonia - pneumonia, etc.).

acute purulent thyroiditis may develop after an injury, bleeding in the prostate, radiation therapy.

Causes of subacute thyroiditis

cause of subacute thyroiditis is a viral infection, but the virus has not identified specific to the disease.It may be caused by influenza, measles (acute infectious disease), mumps (mumps).

This cause is proved by the fact that the disease is established virus outbreak period, all patients have antibodies to the adenovirus, influenza viruses (after the disease in a person's blood is an increase in special cells - antibodies that are "destroyed" specific viral cells).

Predraspolagyuschimi factors to the occurrence of this disease is a genetic predisposition and the presence of chronic infection in the nasopharynx

Causes autoimmune chronic thyroiditis.

are three groups of causative factors of this disease: external, internal, and diseases in which autoimmune thyroiditis is the "second" disease.

internal causes are hereditary factors and predisposing factors.

role of heredity in the development of the disease is confirmed by the presence of familial forms of the disease, the emergence of thyroiditis twins in the same family.

predisposing factor is the internal disorders of the immune and endocrine persistence in adolescence, during pregnancy, in childbirth, and aging.

The external causal factors include:

  1. Pollution industrial wastes that may have a negative impact on the human immune system and lead to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis.
  2. use of pesticides in agriculture, which has a negative effect on the immune system.
  3. Prolonged use of excessive amounts of iodine autoimmunnogot tireoirdita frequency increases, since long-term use at high doses, it stimulates the production of antibodies to thyroid cells.Application of iodine in a daily dose of 100-200 m / kg.It has no negative effect.
  4. impact of low doses of radiation may lead to an increased production of antibodies to normal thyroid cells.
  5. may also contribute to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis - viral and bacterial infections.

Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis may accompany other diseases of the thyroid gland and to be the "second disease".This is possible with Graves' disease, endemic goitre, adenoma (benign tumor) and prostate cancer.

reasons fibrous thyroiditis

causes of the disease are not known definitively.There is an opinion on the role of infectious diseases in the development of goiter Riedel, and some researchers believe that the disease is the ultimate stage of autoimmune thyroiditis.

Risk factors include:

  1. Persons with a history of goitre.
  2. patients with any form of endemic goiter.
  3. undergoing surgery on the thyroid gland.
  4. patients with diabetes mellitus.
  5. People suffering from allergic and autoimmune diseases.
  6. Women older than 40 years.
  7. People who have a genetic predisposition.

Diagnostics thyroiditis

  1. Complete blood count.
  2. immunological study of blood - the identification of antibodies (autoimmune thyroiditis ).
  3. thyroid ultrasound helps to detect tumors or nodules formed in the gland.
  4. blood test for thyroid hormones.
  5. radioisotope scanning of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis with fibrous Riedel) with radioactive iodine - contributes to the detection of thyroid enlargement sizes, blurred contours, shape change.

Treatment thyroiditis

Treatment of acute thyroiditis.

Acute thyroiditis appointed antibiotics and drugs for the treatment of associated symptoms, as well as vitamins C and B. With the development of an abscess (purulent inflammation of tissue) surgical treatment.

treatment of subacute thyroiditis.

Treat the disease hormonal preparations, and with symptoms of the symptoms of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, makes the treatment of these diseases.

Treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

Treatment is mainly medication (thyroid hormone), but with a strong increase in the size of the thyroid gland is shown surgical intervention.

Treatment fibrous thyroiditis.

If chronic thyroiditis observed symptoms of hypothyroidism, the treatment produces thyroid hormones, and if there are signs of compression in the neck, it is necessary surgery.