Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and chest - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Neoplasms

By respiratory include: the larynx and trachea, bronchi and immediately light.In addition, the chest is heart, large vessels such as the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, as well as the esophagus, the fatty tissue and lymph nodes.All of the structures and authorities are located in the so-called mediastinum - the space bounded on both sides of the lungs, back - the spine, front - sternum.There are common tumors and cysts, a large percentage of which are malignant in nature.In addition to the above-mentioned bodies in the mediastinum is the thymus gland - a gland blood, well developed in children, in adults the special function does not assume and is replaced by fatty tissue.Because the thymus is often originate vysokozlokachestvennye highly aggressive tumors that bear the name of thymoma.Also, in the mediastinum can be located lower sections of enlarged thyroid gland, bearing the name of retrosternal goiter, which are very often the source of cancer and should be removed.

Light placed in special prot

ective structures - pleural bags covering the lungs and lining the outside of the chest from the inside, between the sheets of pleura is a small amount of fluid, lubricating lungs and prevents them abrasion.Due to the presence of closed bags pleural chest creates negative pressure, relative to atmospheric pressure, thereby unfolded lungs during inhalation.If you violate the integrity of the pleural bags, such as chest trauma, pressure is equalized and lungs fallen down in the pleural cavity, is not participating in the breath, which requires urgent surgery.In some cases, the wound is closed (does not communicate with the environment), then air during inhalation enters the pleural cavity, filling it and squeezing the internal organs, such a state is called a pneumothorax (Latin for "pneumatic." - Air, "thorax" - breastcell) and threatens the life of the patient, with bilateral pneumothorax death can occur very quickly, within a few hours, as a result of compression of the chest, a condition that requires emergency surgery.

Quite often tumor of the pleura - the lining of the lungs, bearing the name of mesothelioma, they can be either benign or malignant, the latter are very dangerous, they do not respond to treatment, and to remove them is not always possible.

addition, chest is special, unique, and one of the major muscles of the human body, called a diaphragm.It separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities from each other, while maintaining the tightness of the chest, directly participating in the act of breathing.The diaphragm is reduced and raised in the inspiratory phase, relaxes and falls into a phase of exhalation.In violation of the patient's diaphragm works are concerned with breathing problems: breathlessness, heaviness in the chest, shortness of breath.Tumors of the diaphragm are rare, usually it sprout tumors of adjacent organs: lung, pleura, liver, stomach or esophagus.

Also, quite often there are tumors of the chest bone: the ribs, sternum, collarbone.Especially dangerous tumor data in young people, are called osteosarcomas (from the Latin "osteo." - Bone).These tumors vysokozlokachestvennye rapidly grow and metastasize, difficult to treat.

Very often there are secondary changes of the chest - tumor metastasis to other organs.In light of the tumor can metastasize virtually any organ, most commonly breast, colon, kidney, and the lightest.Also meets with metastases in the chest bones: ribs, vertebrae, sternum.

heart tumors are extremely rare.A small tumor can be removed if it does not affect vital structures, such as the cardiac conduction path.In some cases there are other malignancies metastasized to the heart.Symptoms are: shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain and shoulder.Such patients long treated by a cardiologist for heart failure, or heart pain.Diagnosis is based on cardiac ultrasound and computed tomography of the thorax.

heart Cancer

Malignant lung tumors

lung tumors can be divided into two groups: the bronchi tumor and lung tumor tissue, the first called central, the last are called peripheral.Central lung tumors are the most difficult to diagnose in the early stages, they are not always visible, an experienced radiologist can suspect a tumor only indirect evidence, connected with this late detection of tumors of the bronchial tree.

tumor of the bronchus, the view through the endoscope

tumors of lung tissue is easily visible on the radiograph, even at small sizes, but no symptoms in the early stages, do not cause.In more detail symptoms and diagnosis of lung tumors is described in Lung Cancer.

prognosis of lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease.For small tumors and early stage prognosis is almost always favorable, the survival of patients after surgery is high.In the presence of tumor stage 3 prognosis for recovery is uncertain, even if complete removal of the tumor, the disease may come back after a while, especially during the first year.At stage 4 tumors, metastases, more than 3 years not living any one patient.

Malignant tumors of the esophagus

in the chest cavity, behind the heart and major blood vessels, in the posterior part of the mediastinum and on the anterior surface of the spine is the esophagus.He firmly fixed to the surrounding organs and is closely linked with them.In view of the close relationship between the surrounding organs of the chest and esophagus, some of the body the disease can produce serious complications.For example, inflammation and injury of the esophagus leads to involvement in the surrounding adipose tissue process, trachea, heart bag, that is a serious infectious disease - mediastinitis (Latin for "mediastinum." - Mediastinum), often leading to the death of patients.

esophageal cancer

tumors of the esophagus, in the first place, leading to a narrowing of the lumen of the esophagus and the violation of the passage of pischi- dysphagia, until the complete impossibility of passage of the liquid.

quickly germinate Malignant tumors of the esophagus wall and its move to surrounding organs: windpipe, major blood vessels, lungs, making their removal impossible.

cancer of the esophagus, without treatment, can lead to the patient's death from exhaustion.

treated esophageal cancer is very bad due to the anatomical body and the rapid spread of the tumor to the surrounding structures of the chest.In more detail
esophageal cancer is described in esophageal cancer.

Malignant tumors of the mediastinum

mediastinal tumors are quite common, it can be: a tumor of the thymus - a thymoma, a tumor of the lymphatic tissue and lymph nodes - lymphoma and lymphosarcoma, tumor without clear organ toiletries, a tumor of fat tissue - loposarkomy, tumors of nerve tissue andothers.

Tim Tim - a tumor of the thymus - thymic.The thymus gland is located behind the breastbone, it is on the front surface of the large vessels of the mediastinum and the bifurcation of the trachea.Patients treated for a long time do not bother.The tumor found by chance or if symptoms such as shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, as a result of tumor pressure on the trachea and the large bronchi.Symptoms of mediastinal tumors, in addition, can be a pain in the chest - behind the breastbone, extending to the back or shoulder blade, weakness, swelling of the upper half of the chest, neck and face.Vysokozlokachestvennye and aggressive tumors, thymoma, grow quite fast, the only treatment is surgical - complete removal of the tumor.Tim is not sensitive to the effects of therapeutic methods: chemotherapy and radiation treatment.these tumors danger lies in the rapid growth and germination of aggressive surrounding organs, making their removal impossible.

radiograph large mediastinal tumor .

lymphoma and lymphosarcoma

tumors of lymphatic tissue - and lymphoma cell lymphoma - the most common tumor of the mediastinum, especially in young patients.Symptoms are similar to tumors of the thymus, but in addition, changes may occur in the surrounding lymph nodes - supraclavicular and neck, as they increase, a merger in the conglomerates.The presence of enlarged lymph nodes above the collarbone and neck is often the first symptom of the disease and causes patients to consult a doctor.Large cell lymphoma and lymphomas are usually not removed, they are treated with chemotherapy.The prognosis of lymphomas, with adequate treatment is usually favorable, often comes a full recovery of patients.When lymphosarcoma poor prognosis tumors almost do not react to treatment, quickly lead to the death of patients from complications.

Complications of mediastinal tumors

Complications of mediastinal tumors are related to their germination and compression of nearby organs: disturbance of the heart, swelling of the face and neck, the formation of a fistula between the internal organs, fester and spread of infection.

Quite often mediastinal cyst - a benign tumor consisting of a thin capsule and liquid contents, they are not dangerous, but in some cases may degenerate into malignant tumors.

Malignant tumors of the pleura

pleura - the thin serous membrane covering the surface of the lung and the chest inside.The cause of these tumors is the contact with toxic substances, often with asbestos in the technical production.

tumor grows on the surface of the lung, or directly on the chest wall, grows in the soft tissue, nerves or light.The tumors of the pleura, in some cases, cause accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, the breach of the normal processes of absorption and the formation of serous fluid.Symptoms of tumors of the pleura: shortness of breath associated with the presence of fluid in the pleural cavity, chest pain, or at a certain point, a dry hacking cough, chest tightness, temperature rises, and weakness.

Treatment: removal of the tumor is possible in the absence of fluid in the pleural cavity and the presence of a single tumor.If unable to remove the used chemotherapy, but the effect of treatment is not always occurs, since the tumor is almost insensitive to drugs.Patients die quickly from exhaustion and the progressive development of cancer.

Medical consultation:

Question: What is the cause of the development of tumors of the chest?
Answer: The cause of tumor development are exposure to harmful environmental factors: chemical carcinogens emitted during the combustion of fuels such as industrial waste released to the outside environment from the emissions of enterprises and, of course, smoking - inhaling smoke.

Question: What is the survival rate for tumors of the chest?
A: The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer.In step 1-2 the survival rate reaches 70% if adequate treatment (operation).

oncologist Barinov NY