Malignant tumors of the digestive system - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
to digestive include: the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, as well as digestive glands: the liver, the salivary glands and the pancreas.
digestion process begins with the absorption and mechanical processing of food: chewing, mixing and moving it in the lower divisions.The stomach is largely responsible for the mechanical processing of food: its mixing and partial digestion.The basic nutrient absorption process occurs in the small intestine, in the large intestine as only water is absorbed and formed stool.
Of all malignant tumors of the digestive glands are almost always detected cancer.Less common malignancies other identified: stromal tumors and sarcoma.
bodies pischevareniya- Cancer is a malignant tumor develops from the cells of the glandular epithelium (inner lining) of the body.
depending on the affected organ is isolated:
- cancer of the esophagus,
- cancer of the salivary glands,
- cancer of the esophageal-gastric junction,
- stomach cancer,
- cancer of the small intestin
- cancer of the colon and rectumcolon,
- liver cancer,
- pancreatic cancer.
most common of these diseases is found cancer of the stomach and colon.These diseases are the second - the third highest incidence among malignant tumors after lung cancer in men and breast and reproductive glands in women.
Mortality from cancer of the digestive system is high and depends primarily on the stage of the disease, and the higher the stage, the worse the prognosis.
Malignant neoplasms of the esophagus
The causes of esophageal cancer are some features of food, smoking.Smokers, heavy drinkers, the risk of esophageal cancer increases 100 times.
Other factors include: the esophagus chronic diseases such as chronic esophagitis (inflammation), erosion, esophageal ulcers, esophageal damage.With the development of esophageal cancer often has a genetic predisposition.
Symptoms of esophageal cancer are divided into:
- nonspecific: weakness, sweating, body temperature rises, reduction or loss of appetite, weight loss.
- specific for esophageal cancer: atrudnenie swallowing (dysphagia), pain in the chest or in the back, between the shoulder blades, excessive salivation, accumulation of saliva over the tumor (with involvement of the major nerves of the thoracic cavity, hoarseness, cough
Hemoptysis - discharge of blood clots with phlegm (during germination tumor of the bronchi and trachea), the risk of bleeding from the tumor up to the intense, leading to the death of a patient with tumors larger, sprouting nearby organs may develop fistulas (report their holes..are not in the normal organs), such as between the esophagus and the trachea, esophagus and fiber mediastinum, leading to severe inflammation, exhausting the patient and lead to his death Dysphagia -. a violation of passage of food is dangerous without timely treatment, as the patient "dies. hunger »
survey of esophageal cancer patients should include techniques: X-ray examination of the esophagus with contrast, esophagogastroscopy (EGD), bronchoscopy (FBS), Computed tomography, Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity, laparoscopy, thoracoscopy.
esophageal cancer treatment rather difficult task.The difficulty lies in the large amount of surgery: the removal of the entire esophagus and its replacement with another body (a part of the stomach or colon), performed a cut of two cavities (thoracic and abdominal), transferred seriously ill, especially given the fact that patients suffering from esophageal cancer arehighly depleted (due to dysphagia and hunger).
leading treatment for cancer of the esophagus, is undoubtedly a surgical.The operation can be performed only by 1-2, rarely three stages of the disease, due to the close proximity of bodies in the thoracic cavity and germination tumor vital structures that can not be removed.
At 3-4 stage of disease, when it is impossible to remove the tumor or the patient is severely malnourished, perform removal of gastrostomy: a hole in the stomach in the abdomen, through which feed the patient.
Currently, quite often use radiotherapy.
prognosis of esophageal cancer can be favorable only at the stage of 1-2, provided adequate treatment (surgery, radiation).At 3-4 stage prognosis is extremely unfavorable, patients die quickly from exhaustion.
More about malignant tumors pischevaoda section esophageal cancer.
Malignant tumors of the salivary glands
reasons for the development of malignant tumors of the salivary glands in common with those for cancer of the oral cavity and esophagus.This nutritional factors: excessive use of substances irritate the mucous membrane (meats, pickles, spicy and hot foods), and TCA as smoking and alcohol.Predisposing factors also include, and genetic disorders and genetic predisposition.
symptoms of salivary gland cancer include: dry mouth (related to the violation of salivation), pain in the lower or upper jaw, extending to the ear, neck or head, swollen glands in size, acquiring her stony hardness, pain, rise in body temperature.
diagnosis of salivary gland cancer is made by visual inspection and a series of examinations: ultrasound of the affected gland, biopsy it (taking a piece on the study).
Treatment of salivary gland tumors with surgery alone, to radiation and chemotherapy treatment, they practically are not sensitive.
Like any other cancer, salivary gland cancer may metastasize to remote organs, causing the death of patients by poisoning their metabolic products.
complications of cancer of the salivary glands: germination in nearby organs (ear canal, the upper or lower jaw, floor of mouth, the organs of the neck, brain);bleeding from the tumor, the development of severe inflammation, which leads to death of the patient.
Prognosis depends on the stage of the disease, the most favorable prognosis at 1-2 in the process.
Malignant tumors of the stomach
often, for 2-3 place among tumor diseases in frequency of occurrence.
cause of cancer often are nutritional factors: excessive use of substances irritating the mucous membrane (meats, pickles, spicy and hot foods), as well as smoking and alcohol.In the development of gastric cancer plays a significant role special microbe - gelikobakter destroying the protective layer of mucus on the surface of the lining of the stomach.
Symptoms of stomach cancer linked with eating and, often, the patient does not bother alone: heartburn, belching air and food, nausea, in some cases, vomiting, abdominal pain.
treatment of gastric cancer, mainly surgical.If unable to perform the operation used chemotherapy, but the effect of it is small, radiation therapy is not applicable, since the gastric tumors to radiation is not sensitive.
Prognosis depends on the stage of the disease: the 1-2 stage, provided the operation survival rate can reach 70% without treatment does not survive more than one patient.
more detail disease described in gastric cancer.
Malignant tumors of the large intestine
in the development of colon cancer is dominated by chronic inflammatory processes: colitis, proctitis, sigmoidity.The delay creates conditions for stool carcinogens contact with the mucosa and predisposes to cancer.Benign intestinal Pujol also may predispose to the development of cancer, as intestinal polyps often ozlokachestvlyayutsya.Important role in bowel cancer development plays a genetic predisposition.
For location, tumor colon is divided: cancer of the colon and rectum;in turn, colon carcinoma cancer divided into blind, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, depending on the intestine, where the tumor developed.The most common cancer of the sigmoid colon, probably due to the fact that this is a kind of a gut "rezervuarom- drive" for stool.
specific symptoms of bowel cancer does not exist, the existence of long-term constipation, may be suggestive of a malignant tumor of the body, which prevents the normal passage of stool.
Treatment of tumors of the intestine, especially surgery, due to the low sensitivity of tumors to chemotherapeutic drugs and the frequent development of complications in the form of a blockage of the lumen of the intestine with the development of acute retention of stool and gases, hazardous due to the occurrence of complications, leading to death.
forecast, as in other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract depends on the stage of the disease, is most favorable at step 1-2, at step 4, all cancer patients die.
topic in more detail in the section disclosed rectal cancer.
Malignant tumors of the small intestine
very rare, at this main part of them - stromal cancers (from muscle membrane intestine, from the Latin "stroma" - frame, suspension), virtually no cancer is found.In a separate group stromal tumors identified relatively recently (80-90g in the last century), and belongs to the so-called The GIST, the English abbreviation, which translates as gastro-intestinal stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
vysokozlokachestvennye These tumors are growing rapidly and can give the separated metastases, especially in the liver, almost metastasize to nearby lymph nodes.
Symptoms stromal tumors characteristic of any bowel tumors: is constipation and abdominal pain.
Diagnosis can be difficult to establish, since no specific symptoms, such patients treated long gastroenterologists diagnosed with colitis or gastritis, the tumor is usually detected by chance during surgery for other diseases (appendicitis, gynecological operations).
In some cases, the tumor is found by laparoscopy - low-impact study of the internal organs through the puncture of the abdominal wall using the inspection camera.
Treatment of intestinal tumors surgery alone.
Malignant liver tumors
reason for the development of liver cancer are chronic inflammatory liver diseases - hepatitis, most often caused by viral hepatitis B, C and D. It is especially dangerous combination of several viruses.Liver cancer develops in the course of 5 to 10 years from disease onset.
Symptoms of liver cancer may be pulling in the right upper quadrant pain, jaundice of the skin, liver, increase in size, all of these symptoms are non-specific, and is characterized, first of all, for hepatitis.
Most often, liver cancer develops on the background of cirrhosis (chronic liver disease associated with a gradual destruction of liver cells and their replacement by scar tissue).
treatment of liver cancer mainly surgical, chemotherapy is ineffective, tumors are not sensitive to radiation treatment.
prognosis for liver cancer is poor, especially if the cancer affects both lobes and remove the tumor is not possible.Positive results can be achieved only with the full removal of the tumor.
more detail malignant tumors of the liver are described in the section of liver cancer.
Malignant tumors of the pancreas
malignant pancreatic tumors are much less common to other tumors of the digestive system.
The pancreas is located in the upper abdomen, covered from top to the stomach, the sides of it are adjacent liver and spleen, pancreatic duct opens into the duodenum together with bile ducts, through the gland are many blood vessels, and large are near the nerve andvascular plexus.In view of the anatomy of the prostate, it can be said that the tumors quickly spread to surrounding organs, and therefore have difficulty in their removal.
tumors of pancreatic cancer presents - adenocarcinoma develops from the glandular tissue of the organ.The structure
glands secrete "head," "body" and "tail" of the tumor developed in the pancreas head, which directly adjoins the rear wall of the duodenum.
specific symptoms of pancreatic cancer does not exist, but described the mass of non-specific symptoms: weakness, weight loss, rises in body temperature, pain in the upper abdomen, extending to the lumbar region and the character wearing shingles.Characterized by a violation of the chair: diarrhea, stool color lighting, the appearance of undigested food residue in the stool.In the later stages it appears yellowness and dryness of the skin, whites of the eyes, mucous membranes, dark urine, pale stool, these are signs of jaundice (tumor compresses the bile ducts and blocks the flow of bile into the intestine).When compression of the duodenum or the germination of the tumor, there is stagnation of the food of the masses, there are symptoms that are typical of the stomach outlet stenosis (described in the section of stomach cancer).In some cases, when running, it is permanently tumors may sprouting it in large nerve plexus of the abdominal cavity - celiac, which is accompanied by unbearable pain strongest causes of suffering patients.
Stadiruetsya pancreatic cancer, as well as other cancers, depending on the hearth dimensions.4 tumor stage: during germination it in large nearby organs or distant metastases.
Treatment of pancreatic cancer surgery alone, is the complete removal of the breast tumor, the stomach and the formation of artificial bile and pancreatic ducts that open into the duodenum, in some cases, leave the tail of the pancreas and perform the removal of the surrounding organs at their defeat.
radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not used due to the insensitivity of pancreatic cancer.
forecast is favorable only if complete removal of the tumor.