Malignant tumors ( cancers ), bone and joint - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Malignant neoplasms of bone and articular cartilage (bone cancer) - a group of malignant tumors that develop from skeletal tissues.Can develop both individually and as a result of degeneration of benign tumors or processes.
Primary bone tumors are rare.Most occur in young adults: 28-32 years or less.Most often affects the long bones (legs) and pelvis.More than half of the tumors are in the periarticular bone sections, usually near the knee joint.
patients often detected at process step 4, having metastases.
are several types of skeletal tumors:
- bone - the bone tissue of: osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma.
- hryaschevye- of cartilage: chondrosarcoma, Chondroblastoma and their varieties.
- tumor of fibrous tissue: fibrosarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma.
- juvenile Sarcoma - Ewing's sarcoma.
Causes of bone tumors:
- Genetic narusheniya- the most frequent causes of bone tumors.
- Chemical factors
- Ray vozdeystviya- exposure.
- limb injuries.
symptoms of bone tumors.
first symptoms suggestive of the dise
The most common symptom of bone tumors, occurring in 70% of patients - it's a pain.At first, the pain may be mild and disappear spontaneously.In the future, the characteristic is persistent, constant, worse over time and at night the pain that bad removed or not removed painkillers.
Usually, since the first pain before the diagnosis takes place from 6 to 12 months.Often carried out prior to the diagnosis physiotherapy, may exacerbate the pain or reduce it only for a short time.Pain can be of different intensities, but quicker than the tumor growth, there is stronger pain.
In addition, it is possible to detect tumor formation in different sizes and limited mobility in the joint, which appeared near the tumor.In the place of occurrence of the tumor limb increased in circumference, is painful, the skin over it may be swollen and thinned, hot to the touch.
Also, with the development of malignant tumors of the lower limbs, one of the symptoms may appear limp.
In some cases, the first symptom of bone tumors may appear pathological fractures, that is not associated with an injury or damage, as arising spontaneously, when lifting, turning, or even alone.limb fractures are commonly seen.In this case, the refractive index is related to the instability of the bone structure, as the tumor growth in the bone losing natural limb loses strength and support.
With the development of bones and soft tissues of the chest big massive tumor processes in the foreign literature called them Askin tumors .These tumors grow large and penetrate into the chest, and germinating involving internal organs: lungs, pleura, mediastinum organs.Typically, the disease is asymptomatic, and only in the late stage manifests itself with the development of complications: severe pain, respiratory failure and shortness of breath, fluid accumulation in the thoracic cavity, body temperature rise to high numbers and hemoptysis.
Many patients already in the primary treatment, may be distant metastases.
Some of the most aggressive bone tumor - is Ewing's sarcoma.The place of origin can be a either a bone as well as soft tissue limbs, head and torso.
At the age of 20 years, these tumors are more likely to affect the long bones: hip, shoulder, shin bone;in older age - the flat bones of the pelvis and the skull, ribs, scapula, vertebrae.Most tumors localized in the lower extremities and pelvis.About 75% of tumors located near the knee, at least - the elbow.
highly aggressive nature of Ewing's sarcoma results in the presence of distant metastases in 1/3 patients who applied, many are turning directly in connection with the presence of disturbing their metastases.
stages of bone tumors:
Stage 1: the tumor prior to or greater than 8 cm in greatest dimension, the degree of aggressiveness of the tumor (differentiation) 1-2
Stage 2: tumor more than 8 cm, the degree of aggressiveness 3-4;
Stage 3: tumor complicated by pathological fracture a limb;
Stage 4: tumor of any size, provided the presence of metastases in regional lymph nodes or distant organs.
bone tumors in 10 to 12% are able to provide screenings (metastasize) to nearby lymph nodes.
distant metastases often affects the following bodies: in the first place the lungs, other bones and bone marrow, as well as the abdominal organs, lymph nodes, mediastinal and retroperitoneal space, pleura, brain and meninges.
Diagnosis of bone tumors:
X-rays of affected bones reveals a tumor, the extent of it on the bone and the surrounding soft tissues and organs.
X-rays, bone cancer Set arrow
Computer or magnotno resonance tomography affected skeletal sites or soft tissue can more accurately determine the boundaries of the spread of the tumor, as well as to clarify the relationship of the primary tumor and the surrounding soft tissues.
Computer or magnotno resonance imaging.Bone cancer Set arrow
Bone scan - study the skeleton with special radiopharmaceutical (usually technetium 99), and then scan the entire skeleton.The drug is administered intravenously accumulates the affected areas of the bone and causes a special "glow" of the site in the pictures.This study reveals, except for the tumor distant metastases at other skeletal sites.
biopsy of the affected area of bone tumor, is commonly used open biopsy: a piece of the tumor is taken by a small operation, while the tumor is not removed.In some cases, possible trepan- biopsy: The removal of a piece of research on tumor using a special needle.
Taking on bone marrow examination : using bone marrow biopsy of the iliac bone.
treatment of bone tumors.
the first place in the treatment of bone tumors is surgical method.Scope of the operation depends on the size and location of the tumor.Be sure to remove all of the tumor within healthy tissues and surrounding muscles.For large tumor size when you want to remove a large amount of tissue or whole bone, use permanent replacement metal.In some cases, when the tumor is close to the major joints, affects large blood vessels and nerves that keep the limb is not possible to resort to the removal of the entire limb: amputation.Similar operations are now trying to avoid, are increasingly using the organ-and substitution operations.
Other standard methods of cancer treatment such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, bone tumors practically insensitive.
Radiotherapy in a separate embodiment, is not used and is used only in combination with chemotherapy in preparation for surgery to reduce tumor size.
Chemotherapy as an independent method of treatment, the same does not apply.Use chemotherapy treatment in the preoperative period, in order to reduce tumor size.In such cases, in large hospitals use local settlement chemotherapy - the introduction of a nearby artery, than create a large concentration of the drug in the tumor and decrease its toxic effects on the body.
In addition, chemotherapy is used in stage 4 of the disease, in the case of distant tumor metastases in other organs, in order to reduce them in size, extending the life of the patient.At the same time, used a combination of 3 or more drugs with different mechanisms of action.
With a view to a speedy recovery and the strengthening of the operated limb apply early activation of patients, medical massage and gymnastics.
In some cases, after surgery for bone tumors require restorative rehabilitation treatment, it can be to use medical gymnastics, physical education (gymnastics), wearing supportive devices (bandages, elastic bandages), the use of prostheses.In all cases, postoperative rehabilitative treatment requires specialist advice.
Application self methods concoctions of herbs and poisons unacceptable.Tumours of bones grow quickly and aggressively, delay in referral to a specialist may be dangerous and lead to sad consequences .
Complications of bone tumors include: pathological fractures - fracture in the area of the tumor, where there is a "weak spot".
severe pain in the area of the tumor lesion.
Complications associated with the involvement of neighboring organs: the defeat legkih- development of respiratory failure, hemoptysis;with the defeat of the major development of edema sosudov- arrosive limb or bleeding.
In addition, with a large array of the tumor can be attached infection: constant harassing rises in body temperature, exhaustion.
prognosis of tumors of bone.
With timely and adequate treatment (surgery with removal of the entire tumor), patient survival rate reaches 60-70%, depending on the tumor stage and aggressiveness of the tumor.But it must be remembered that any malignant tumor diseases dangerous return: the development of recurrence and metastasis, with this in mind, the patient should undergo timely checkups at vracha specialist.
With 4 stages of the disease does not survive, no patients.
Prevention of bone tumors.
As such, prevention of bone tumors does not exist, because, often, the development of their character is genetic.The success of treatment depends on the timely diagnosis of the disease: treatment to the doctor, detection and treatment of disease.
Doctor's consultation on bone cancers:
Q: How dangerous bone tumors?
Answer: Bone Tumors are dangerous fast aggressive growth, as well as the ability to ratsidivirovat after removal and give distant metastases.
Question: What is the treatment of bone tumors?
leading treatment for cancer, and, in some cases, dobrokachenstvennyh, bone tumors is surgical.Only surgery can give a chance to the patient's recovery.
oncologist Barinov N.YU