Cancer lip , oral cavity and pharynx ( throat ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Neoplasms

Cancers lips, mouth and throat have a common origin, a similar structure and the same reasons for the development.

reasons for lip cancer, mouth and pharynx

Main place among the causes of lip cancer, mouth and throat take chronic inflammatory diseases: cheilites (mouth inflammation), stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums), pharyngitis (throat inflammation).In turn, the cause of the above diseases is a constant trauma mucosal irritants: the use of excessively hot and spicy food, strong coffee, alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking (especially pipes), chewing tobacco, betel and NASA, strong sunlight (insolation), sudden changes in temperature and humidity, viral infection, non-compliance with oral hygiene and others.We prove the direct role of smoking in the development of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx.

Among tumors of the oral cavity and pharynx most frequently encountered squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer lips

Cancer lips - a malignant tumor of epithelial c

ells cover the red portion of the lips.More common in men, accounting for more than 70% of cases.Cancer affected often lower lip.

precancerous processes are most often: chronic cracked lips and inflammation, papilloma and other mouth diseases.The tumors are tumors of the lips of external localization, so 85% of the tumors identified in the 1-2 stage of disease.

Pictured cancer lips

Symptoms

lip cancer mouth cancer Outwardly looks like a little education, or the seal portion projecting above the surface of the lips, it is formed in the center of pitting.Located education in the red border of the lower lip on the side of the midline.The tumor is different thick consistency and gradually increases in size, becomes irregular in shape.Often, the tumor grows in the form of papilloma or cracked, covered with scales, bleeding.The tumor may initially appear as sores on the lips leaving a deep tissue with infiltration (transition) to nearby tissue, rapid metastasis.

Tumors oral

Tumors oral cavity may develop the following organs: tongue, mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth and palate, mucosa of the upper and lower jaw (and gums), mucous cheeks.

oropharyngeal tumors develop from: the tonsils, base of the tongue, soft palate, posterior pharyngeal wall.In most cases, the tumor affects the tongue, floor of the mouth mucosa and the tonsils.

According to the structure of the tumor can be: squamous cell carcinoma, a variety of soft tissue malignant tumors (sarcomas), high-grade, sometimes there are melanoma and other more rare tumors, such as angiosarcoma (vascular tumors).

The shape growth cancer can be exophytic (growing in the mouth or on the lip surface) and infiltrative (clearly visible tumor components not cancer "spreads" on body surface, changing its color and texture, such tumors most aggressive) may bemixed and infiltrative-ulcerative cancers.

Pictured cancer

language Symptoms oral cavity cancer include the following:

- nonspecific symptoms: weakness, body temperature rises to 37- 38 ° C, sweating, weight loss and appetite, fatigue.
- presence in the mouth or on the lip or delivering painless discomfort or ulceration of the seal, not passing on the background of the treatment and gradually increasing in size.As the growth of the tumor join pain, which is usually given to the appropriate ear, temple or jaw area.

Further symptoms depend on the nature of the affected organ:

- for tumors of the oropharynx often worried about "foreign body sensation", a violation of swallowing, choking, with involvement of the epiglottis, or entry closing process in the larynx observed a pronounced difficulty in breathing, sometimes requiring urgent tracheostomy (forming a hole in the trachea to facilitate respiration of the patient);
- when there is swelling of tongue tumors and violation of his mobility and spoken sounds, speech, difficulty swallowing is painful;
- for tumors of the upper palate is a violation of nasal breathing and changes in voice (snuffles), in which case the pain may be increased up to excruciating.
- during germination tumor of the facial muscles and lips appear lockjaw (strained twitch muscle contraction);
- at far come decaying, tumors appear salivation mixed with blood, pus and pieces of the tumor, the presence of bad breath.In the propagation of the tumor in the direction of large vessels may cause bleeding of varying intensity, in some cases requiring the vessel ligation to stop it.

Stage lip and oral cavity cancer:

Stage 1: the tumor to 2 cm;
Stage 2: Tumor 4 cm;
Stage 3: Tumor larger than 4 cm, as well as any size tumor in the presence of metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes (single on the affected side of not more than 3 cm);
Stage 4: tumor spread to adjacent structures: bones, deep muscles, soft tissues of neck, sinuses, skin or tumor of any size with metastases in several nearby lymph nodes greater than 3 cm in size, or the presence of distant metastases in other internal organs.

characteristic property of cancer of the mouth and throat is a frequent lymphogenous metastasis (to nearby lymph nodes), sometimes on both sides.

This affects the lymph nodes in stages: first metastases occur in the chin and submandibular nodes, then to the neck, and finally, the last barrier are deep cervical and supraclavicular nodes.Distant metastases in other internal organs occur rapidly, even at 4 stages of the disease.

results of treatment depend on the stage of the disease and the affected organ: for 1-2 stages survives 90% of patients with mouth cancer at stage 3-4, even when using all kopleks therapeutic measures, 5 years of experience of not more than 50% of patients.

throat cancer

From lip cancer, mouth and ratoglotki most dangerous and aggressive are the last.They have a higher rate of growth, the earlier and wider metastasis to nearby lymph nodes, the presence of which often is the first symptom of the disease.

pharyngeal tumors are divided into the following, depending on the location: the nasopharynx (the upper section), oropharynx, hypopharynx (the transition to the larynx).

Diagnostics lip cancer, mouth and throat

When on the lip or in the mouth dense nodule or long not passing ulceration, should apply to the dentist.In the presence of these structures in the tonsils or pharynx required inspection otolaryngologist (ENT doctor).

diagnosis of tumors difficult mouth and throat is not, as it is a visual localization of the tumor.The boundaries of the tumor lesion prevalence determined during the inspection of the oral cavity and oropharynx, sometimes by means of special tools (laryngoscopy, fibroscopy oropharynx, nasopharynx and larynx).

To detect tumor lesions of the facial bones of the skull or the germination of the tumor using X-rays and computed tomography of the skull.

To diagnose metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes perform ultrasound submandibular, cervical and supraclavicular areas.
After a visual inspection and ultrasound perform sampling biopsy (a small piece of tumor tissue for examination under a microscope) and puncture of the suspicious lymph nodes.

oropharyngeal tumors tend to metastasize to distant organs, often affects the lungs, liver, brain and bones of the skeleton.To identify lesions of these organs perform abdominal ultrasound, X-rays of the lungs, in the presence of computed tomography pokazaniy- various internal organs.

Treatment of lip cancer, mouth and throat.

in treating mouth cancer, oral cavity and pharynx important and perhaps the leading role of radiation therapy.This is due to the fact that tumor localization data are highly sensitive to radiation exposure.Radiation therapy can be of several types:

  • distance (irradiation source is located),
  • brachytherapy - a source of radiation is injected directly into the affected organ, in this case, in the mouth,
  • Applique - the source of radiation is placed directly in the tumor (plates or needles) and a combination of several methods.

With early cancer lips or tongue small size effective radiation therapy, exposure to cryogenic (liquid nitrogen), or photodynamic therapy (intravenous introduction of special preparations that enhance the sensitivity of the tumor, followed by irradiation of the affected area).In cancer, more than 1 stage used a complex method of treatment: irradiation of the tumor and cervical lymph nodes in small doses, followed by surgery (removal of the lips or tongue tumor or removal of lymph nodes in the neck).

In some cases (for small tumors 1-2 stages), radiation therapy is used as an independent method of treatment, and the introduction of a large dose of radiation.

When tumors 3-4 treatment stages usually involves several steps: radiation, chemotherapy and surgery.Generally, treatment is initiated with chemotherapy or radiation.If there

floor of the mouth cancer and tumors growing into adjacent organs (tongue, jaw, lips) for 3 to 4 stages, require complex surgery involving partial or total removal of the lips, floor of the mouth tissue and lower jaw.After such mutilation patients require replacement of tissue removed.In identifying diseased metastatic cervical lymph nodes, it is necessary their complete removal is often the operation is performed in several stages on both sides.

When tumors 4 stages, when it is impossible removal of the affected organ or has metastasized be permanently used chemotherapy or radiotherapy to reduce the size of the tumor or removal of painful symptoms (pain, swelling).

Complications of lip cancer, tongue and throat.

connected with the growth of the tumor and direct spread to the surrounding tissues: bleeding (during germination of large vessels), suppuration of the tumor and surrounding tissue, formation of fistulas to the surrounding organs (holes in decaying tumor, which is not normal), asphyxia, caused by the overlap of a tumor of the upperrespiratory tract.

Prevention:

- face protection from direct sunlight (wearing a wide-brimmed hat);
- smoking cessation;
- change in operating conditions (avoid contact with chemicals);
- oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist;
- abstinence from alcoholic beverages;
- treatment of chronic diseases of the mouth (cheilitis, cracked, papillomatosis);
-dieta rich in vitamins.

Medical consultation:

Question: How can I detect oral cancer at an early stage?
Answer: Identify the difficulties of tumors lip is not as often the patient himself detects a suspicious site.To detect oral tumors require an annual inspection by a dentist, as cancers grow slowly.

Question: What are the treatments used in cancer of those bodies?
Answer: For small tumors is the most effective surgical method (complete removal of the affected area).But, often oral tumors grow large and affect the neighboring organs, removing them is associated with a high risk for the patient and the crippling nature of the operation.In view of the above, the most acceptable combine the method of treatment (surgery, radiation and chemotherapy).The lead in the treatment of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, is radiation therapy.

Q: Who is most susceptible to the emergence of cancer of the mouth and throat?
Answer: Most often suffer from men (70%), this is due to the prevalence of tobacco smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages and hot, spicy food.The disease is common in Asian countries where culture introduced chewing tobacco and NASA.