Blood Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
What is cancer of the blood?To answer this question we shall understand, first, what is a cancer in general.
So rak- is a malignant tumor of epithelial tissue, that is, from cells covering our bodies: the stomach, intestines, oral cavity, bronchi, and so on, as well as leather.That is, the cancer is only a narrow concept of a certain type of cancer.Besides cancer, there are other forms, such as sarcomas, which are highly malignant and develop more aggressive than cancer, sarcomas including blood.
blood cancer - a tumor that develops from a single bone marrow cells by a constant uncontrollable her division for a certain period of time (from a few weeks to a few months), displacing and suppressing with the growth and development of other normal blood cells (!).Accordingly, the symptoms of the disease are connected with the lack of in the body of certain normal operating cell.
Pictured cancerous blood cells under a microscope
course the particular tumor, which can be seen or touched, the body does
reasons for blood cancer
Why is the cell begins to divide indefinitely?Our body functions as a unit, closely linked team in which each player does his job, communicating with others and helping them to fulfill their function.Universal cells - helpers are blood cells, being born in the bone marrow, after maturing, they go on a journey through the body: eritrotsity- feeding other cells with oxygen, white blood cells - to protect them from invading viruses and bacteria, trombotsity- maintaining the integrity of the tissue to form blood clots and stopping bleedingif necessary.But at some point, any of the blood cells can develop into a cancer (over the exposed young, immature cells) due to various factors: radiation, chemical poisons, we consume food or breathe air, genetic predisposition, as well as pre-treatment chemotherapyabout another malignancy.Sometimes the cause or trigger factor may be the viruses, for example - the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).For example, among children who were in the zone of the Chernobyl disaster, a large number of cancerous blood disorders have been observed.In this case, the cell loses contact with the body, and begins to work on yourself, infinitely divided, again and again, giving rise to a population in the thousands and hundreds of thousands of their own kind.
Why did they bring so much trouble?Cancer cells multiply, taken power in normal cells, preventing them to grow and divide, to perform its functions, take up more space in the bone marrow, when place there becomes too small, the cells leave it and go into the bloodstream, filling the other tissues and organsforming in them the likeness of colonies and impairing their function, it can be: the liver, heart, lymph nodes, kidneys, skin, lungs and even the brain.
«blood cancer» - the wrong term for cancer of blood supply system and blood, but is firmly entrenched among patients.
There are several types of blood cancer:
- Leukemia (leukemia, from the Latin "leucosomes" - white): tumor of the bone marrow cells:
• Acute - from young, immature blood cells are flowing aggressively;
• Chronic - from mature cells flow easily.
- gematosarkomy (from the Latin "Gemos" - the blood) - extremely zlokachestvennye- of lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes) - lymphosarcoma, such as B-cell, and others.
Most often, when we speak of "blood cancer" is meant any form of leukemia or lymphosarcoma, as these diseases are most common in hematological practice.Clinically, more correctly known as "blood cancer" - hematological malignancies, ie,Group tumors arising from hematopoietic cells.Tumor - poorly controlled by the body actively sprawling cloth, which originated from a single mutated cell;it is not a consequence of inflammation or unmetabolized storage cells.Gemablastozy in which tumor cells mainly affect the bone marrow, are called leukemias.In the past, often called leukemia leukemia or leukemia due to the appearance in the blood of a large number of immature white blood cells.But, since this feature is not specific to any and all types of leukemia, the term leukemia refused.
leukemia addition to hematological malignancies are also gematosarkomy - formation arising from hematopoietic cells, but which are vnekostnomozgovye tumor growths.Much less common this type of hematological malignancies like lymphocytoma - a tumor composed of mature lymphocytes, or proliferation, similar to a lymph node, with little or no bone marrow is affected.
As with gematosarkomah and limfotsitomy when tumor cells are able to eventually spread throughout the body and hit the bone marrow.At this stage, usually no longer possible to distinguish gematosarkomu from acute leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia from limfotsitomu-.
For all gemablastozov characterized by systematic destruction, enabling the defeat of other organs and tissues.Another characteristic of the flow of these diseases is that all vnekostnomozgovye (neleykemicheskie) hemoblastoses able leykemizirovatsya, iemetastasize to the bone marrow.
Leukemia Metastasis in organs and tissues that are not related to blood, reflect a new stage of the disease: the emergence of subclones (the next generation of tumor cells), adapted to a given tissue.Often metastases in different organs behave independently, often have different sensitivity to chemotherapy regimens.
To separate gemablastozov on malignant and benign as criteria usually take the presence or absence of tumor progression.Those.Benign tumors are characterized by monotonous passage without causing qualitative changes do not actually spread throughout the body.Malignant tumors, on the contrary, are progressing quite quickly, and different clinical dynamism - a rapid increase in the symptoms that are visible to the naked eye.
Symptoms of blood cancer
first alarm bells may include: weakness, dizziness, irregular temperature rises to the low numbers are not associated with any kakimi- colds, pain in the bones, an aversion to food odors or headaches.The symptoms of these are non-specific and, most of all, do not force patients to consult a doctor.Changes in the family often notice: excessive paleness, weight loss, dry and icteric coloring of skin, drowsiness or, conversely uncharacteristic irritability patients.Some types of the disease dramatically increases the spleen and liver, patients complain of an increase in abdominal size, bloating, heaviness in the upper quadrant, usually harbingers of an advanced stage.In addition, there may be a increased bleeding of mucous, minor skin rash.
In the case of tumors of the lymphatic tissue first symptom - is the appearance of a painless dense knot under the skin in places of natural folds (groin, armpits, above the collarbone, in the neck) - it is the lymph nodes.In finding these tumors should immediately (!) To see a doctor and blood tests, as well as perform the ultrasound examination of enlarged lymph nodes, then the therapist will direct to a specialist (surgeon, oncologist or hematologist vrachu).
Hematologist - a doctor involved in the treatment of diseases of the hematopoietic system.
Photography patients with blood cancer (right Korobchenko Victor 27.10.1992.-03.10.2007. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia Hybrid (T-cell and myeloid) early relapse)
diagnosis of leukemia put only on the basis ofblood tests: first overall analysis, which gives a preliminary idea of the nature of the disease.The most reliable option leukemia is put on the basis of bone marrow puncture: a thick needle puncture is performed sternum or the hip bone, typed in a syringe a small amount of bone marrow is examined under a microscope.
experienced cytologist (doctor working with a microscope) is bound to say kind of tumor, how aggressive it is, the amount of bone marrow lesions it.Also, in difficult cases are increasingly being used to diagnose the biochemical level: immunohistochemistry, the number of various proteins in tumor cells can be up to 100% to determine its nature.
Why do you need to know the nature of the tumor?As our body grows and develops at the same time a huge number of cells on the basis of this, we can assume that leukemia variants can be myriad.This is not quite true: the most common of them have long been studied, but the more perfect the methods of diagnosis, the more types of tumors, we learn.Various tumor - differently sensitive to treatment using various drugs or combinations thereof.In order to select the appropriate drug for the treatment and it is necessary, it is imperative to know the nature of the tumor.
treatment of blood cancer
as chemotherapy treatment is used: it is an intravenous (drip) introduction of highly potent drugs, in large doses, designed to destroy all alien invasive cancer cells, in this case, of course, it is impossible not to damage svoi- good and necessary.For this reason, suffer from normal tissues especially rapidly developing: cells of hair follicles (hair loss and hence), gastrointestinal tract cells (nausea and vomiting, a disorder of the chair), the cells of the reproductive system, as well as bone marrow (may anemiya-reduction in the number of red blood cells and leukopenia - a decrease of white blood cells - immune system).On the development of drugs that can not affect the normal cells are constantly working scientists around the world, but unfortunately, such a means is not yet possible to find, as cancer cells very similar to our native cells.In addition, the situation is complicated by the ability of some tumor cells change their structure and thus become insensitive to therapeutic drugs, escape from their influence, in this case, have to pick up more powerful and toxic drugs, but even in these cases, the effect can not occur.
Without the use of the chances of survival of chemotherapy in cases minimal.Typically, the time of detection of the disease to the death of patients without treatment is 1-5 months.
It is worth to mention one method of treatment: the so-called "bone marrow transplant".Of course, no one transplant, is meant parenteral (drip) introducing bone marrow cells of a healthy donor concentrate, which is taken by his puncture.Pre high dose chemotherapy destroys all patient bone marrow cells (to destroy the population of cancer cells to the last), and then is intravenous infusion.The procedure is very dangerous and is carried out under strict indications, typically at vysokozlokachestvennyh tumors in young patients.At this time, patients highly vulnerable to infections and are in intensive care wards.
Unfortunately, so far not developed other methods of treatment of leukemia.
Do not trust various healers and homeopathy, which in large quantities are offering their services, it is a loss of valuable time for the patient, it is necessary as soon as possible to begin treatment by a qualified specialist.As an adjuvant therapy, if you wish, you can use a variety of drugs vitamins (vitrum, multitabs and others), for the prevention of complications in the digestive tract are recommended concoctions of herbs (chamomile, yarrow, sea buckthorn), which have a local anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and wound-healing effect.It is strictly forbidden during the treatment of chemotherapy to use such "folk remedies" as tinctures mushroom, hemlock, celandine and other poisonous substances!All of them have a pronounced toxic effect and poison the body's defenses that undermined oncological disease, further aggravating the patient's condition.
Prevention of blood cancer exists.
disease prognosis and outcome of the disease depends primarily on the shape of the tumor: for acute leukemia prognosis is worse, they flow swiftly and quickly leads to the death of patients.Chronic leukemias are flowing more benign, quickly achieved a remission of the disease (clinical improvement) and require fewer courses of heavy chemotherapy.
blood cancer in children
malignant blood diseases are quite common in children.The most commonly affects children between the ages of 2 to 5 years.More common in boys.The appearance of the disease in childhood is probably due to the action of radiation: exposure to the mother during pregnancy, as well as in violation of the genetic apparatus of cells of sick children (hereditary factors).Tumors of blood in children clinically manifest themselves as adults, a variety of symptoms: bone pain, joint pain, weakness, dizziness, drowsiness, and rapid fatigue of the child, pale skin, enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes.Children often detected this form of the disease as "neuroleukemia": headaches, dizziness, neurological symptoms (meningealnyy- defeat of the meninges, entsefalicheskiy- loss of brain tissue) and others, to develop this form with recurrent disease (appearance of new diseases through a bend of anyperiod of time after treatment), treatment with new combinations of chemotherapeutic agents used heavy enough.
For the treatment of leukemia in children, as in adults, chemotherapy is used, the effect of which in children is more often better than adults, is associated with the body of the child the ability to recover quickly after treatment.In addition, as a child used a bone marrow transplant from a donor who may be close relatives (brothers and sisters compatible on a number of indicators).Recovery in children is usually observed in 70% of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, unlike adults, and 40% of acute myeloid leukemia.
Prognosis and survival from leukemia.
The incidence of tumors of the blood in the different countries varies in a wide range: from 3 to 10 per 100 thousand population.Thus men suffer 1.5 times more often than women.The maximum incidence of chronic leukemia occurs in people aged 40 - 50 years old, sharp - 10- 18 years.The peak of the disease occurs between the ages of 2 to 5 years, with a gradual decrease in the number of cases at the age of 7 years and older.Less noticeable increase in the number of cases between the ages of 10-13 years.Boys suffer from acute leukemia more often than girls.The frequency of leukemia in children is 3,2-4,4 cases per 100 thousand population.
Forecast for acute leukemia is much worse than for chronic.Acute leukemias are flowing fast, aggressive, do not respond well to treatment.
Among the acute leukemias noted the predominance of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the frequency of which is 75-85%.
acute leukemia without treatment very quickly lead to the death of patients, but in conducting proper treatment prognosis, especially for children, is favorable.
probability of recovery of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ranges from 60-65% to 85-95%.
Recovery of patients with acute myeloid leukemia during adequate treatment is 40-50%.In the case of stem cell transplantation - 55-60%.
Chronic leukemias develop slowly, gradually, in the course of 1 year or more, but up to a point, which is called when the blast krizom- chronic leukemia actually turns into sharp, and behaves very aggressively, life expectancy of such patients is not more than 6 12months.
Death from chronic leukemia occurs during the blast crisis of complications.With timely treatment of chronic leukemia can be achieved remission for many years.Against the background of chemotherapy the average life expectancy is 5-7 years.
Gematosarkomy - vnekostnomozgovye tumors of hematopoietic tissue?