Lung Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Causes Lung Cancer Symptoms
Diagnosis Treatment of lung cancer
Prediction and prevention
Lung Cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the mucous membrane and glands of the bronchi and lung tissue.
Causes Lung Cancer
causes of lung cancer are varied, all of them can be divided into dependent and independent of man.By
unchanged independent factors include genetic predisposition - the presence of lung cancer in the immediate family, three or more cases of lung cancer in the family, as well as the presence of a given patient several tumor diseases of other organs (multiple forms of cancer).In addition, the same factors include the overall status of the patient: age over 50 years, the presence of chronic lung disease (chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia - an inflammation of the lungs, scarring of the lung tissue);as well as the endocrine disturbances in the body, especially in women.
modifiable factors, that is, those people in a state of change in
all harmful compounds, inhaled with cigarette smoke permanently settle in the lungs, they are not absorbed and does not output, and form clusters, slowly covering the lungs black with soot.Light healthy people have gently - pink, soft, porous, light smoker - a rough, non-elastic fabric, acquiring a black or blue-black color.
most dangerous benzpyrene, it has a direct damaging effect on the bronchial mucosa, even in low doses, causing degeneration of normal cells.No less dangerous second-hand smoke: Smokers takes over only a small part of the smoke, exhaling all of the remaining 80% of the smoke in the air.For lung cancer risk plays a significant role smoking experience: more than 10 years, the number of cigarettes smoked.When smoked more than two packs a day increases the risk of lung cancer by 25 times.
Another factor that increases the risk of lung cancer - a professional exposure:
- work in factories associated with asbestos production, grinding of metal products and blacksmithing (iron smelting and steel),
- fulling, cotton and linen production,
- occupational exposure to heavy metals, toxic chemicals (arsenic, chromium, nickel, aluminum);
- work in the mining industry: coal mining, radon mines, coal tar;
- rubber industry.
Another factor - it is air pollution.Every day in the big cities residents inhale thousands of carcinogens released into the air by plants and the combustion of motor fuel.Inhalation of these substances invariably leads to degeneration of airway mucosa.
symptoms of lung cancer symptoms
allowing suspected lung cancer, are divided into general and specific.
Common symptoms: weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, sweating, unreasonable rises in body temperature.
specific symptoms of lung cancer may include the following:
- cough - causeless occurrence, hacking, exhausting cough accompanies cancer of the bronchi (central cancer).The patient, carefully watching their health, can independently detect changes cough character becomes more frequent, hoarse, changing the nature of sputum.The cough may be paroxysmal, or for no reason related to the inhalation of cold air, physical exertion or when lying down.Such cough occurs when irritation of the bronchial tree growing into the lumen of his tumor.When central lung cancer appears sputum, usually yellow - green color due accompanying inflammatory phenomena in the lung tissue.
- One of the most characteristic symptoms of lung cancer is considered hemoptysis (discharge of blood, sputum), blood may be frothy, mixed with mucus, giving it a pinkish hue and bright - bright red, intense, in the form of veins (active bleeding) or in the form of darkclots (old clotted blood).Bleeding from the respiratory tract can be quite intense and prolonged, sometimes leading to the death of patients.But, hemoptysis may be a symptom of other lung diseases: pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchiectasis (air spaces in the lung).
- shortness of breath associated with changes in lung tissue: tumor concomitant pneumonia spadenie part of the lung due to the occlusion of the bronchus tumor (atelectasis), disturbed gas exchange in the lung tissue and worsen the conditions of ventilation, reduction in respiratory surface.When tumors growing in the large bronchi may come all lung atelectasis and complete shutdown of its work.
Atelectasis of the left lung, caused by central cancer
Segmental atelectasis of the upper lobe of the left lung, caused by a tumor of the segmental bronchi
- chest pain - associated with tumor invasion serous lining of the lungs (pleura), havinga lot of painful endings associated with inflammatory changes in the lung and tumor invasion into bone, the large nerve plexus chest.
there is no pain at an early stage of the disease, characterized by intense pain resistant to late running of tumor stages.Pain may be in one place or to give in the neck, shoulder, arm, back or abdomen may increase when you cough.
Several distinct clinical and radiological form of lung cancer:
1. central cancer - cancer of the bronchi, increases in the lumen of the large bronchi (the main, lobar, segmental).Swelling increases as the lumen of the bronchus (shown earlier) and the surrounding lung tissue bronchus.does not manifest itself in the early stages, are often not visible on x-rays and x-ray images as tumor shadow merges with the heart and blood vessels.Suspect the presence of a tumor can be indirect evidence on the radiograph: decreased lung airiness site or inflammatory phenomena in the same place repeatedly (recurrent pneumonia).Characterized by cough, shortness of breath, coughing up blood, in severe cases - chest pain, high body temperature
central tumor of the right lung large
2. Peripheral cancer - increases in lung tissue thickness.Symptoms not detected by chance during examination or developing complications.The tumor may reach large sizes does not prove itself, such patients often refuse treatment, referring to the absence of symptoms.
Variety of peripheral cancer - lung cancer tops (Penkosta), characterized in germination vessels and nerves of the shoulder girdle.Such patients long treated by a neurologist or physician with a diagnosis of low back pain, complex and is sent to an oncologist is already running the tumor.A variety of peripheral cancer is also a form of abdominal cancer - a tumor with a cavity in the center.The cavity in the tumor is the result of disintegration of the central part of the tumor growth process in which not enough power.These tumors can reach large sizes up to 10 cm and more, they are easily confused with inflammation - abscesses, tuberculosis with decay, lung cysts that separates correct diagnosis leads to the progression of the disease without specific treatment.
Void Form lung cancer: a tumor in the right lung contains arrow
3. Pnevmoniepodobny cancer, as the name suggests, is similar to pneumonia, patients are treated by a physician for a long time, when the effect of antibiotic treatment is not, suggests about cancer.Characterized by rapid growth of the tumor grows diffusively not a node, it takes one or more lung lobes.
Pnevmoniepodobnaya form of lung cancer lesions of both lungs
with the defeat of the lower lobe of the right lung
4. Atypical forms: liver, brain, bone, and others.Connected with the symptoms not the most lung tumors, and its metastases.For hepatic form is characterized by jaundice, changes in blood tests, an increase in liver weight in the right upper quadrant.Brain - often manifests stroke clinic - stops working arm and leg on the opposite side of the lesion, impaired speech, loss of consciousness, can be cramps, headaches, double vision.Bone - pain in the spine, pelvis or extremities, often arise spontaneously (non-injury) fractures.
5. Metastatic tumor - this screenings from the main body of other tumors (for example breast, colon, lung another, LOR organs, prostate, etc.) having the structure of the original tumor and capable of growing, breaking organ function.In some cases, metastases can reach huge sizes (10 cm) and lead to the death of patients by poisoning the tumor waste products and the violation of the internal organs (liver and respiratory insufficiency, increased intracranial pressure, and so on).Most often, there are metastases from colorectal cancer, breast cancer, the second light, which is associated with the specific organ blood flow: very fine and well developed vasculature, tumor cells are deposited in it from the bloodstream and begin to grow, forming a colony - metastasis.The lungs may metastasize malignancy of any organ.Metastases in the lungs are common, it is very similar to the independent tumors.
Sometimes full examination the tumor - the source of metastasis can not be found.
diagnosis of lung cancer
As can be seen from the above, the diagnosis of lung cancer is quite a difficult task, tumors are often disguised as other lung diseases (pneumonia, abscesses, tuberculosis).Because over 50% of lung cancer is detected at high running stages and inoperable.The initial stage of the tumor, and sometimes certain types of tumors are running does not show themselves and are identified only by chance or developing complications.
To avoid this, you must at least once a year undergo X-ray examination of the lungs.
survey for suspected lung cancer include:
- fluorography - mass survey conducted prophylactic among large groups of the population, can detect the most serious lung disease: tuberculosis, tumors of the lungs and mediastinum (the space between the lungs that contains the heart, bigvessels and adipose tissue), pneumonia.If any pathological changes on fluorogram perform X-ray examination of the lungs in 2 projections: frontal and lateral.
- chest X-ray can more accurately interpret the changes in the lungs, be sure to evaluate both images.
- the next stage: a simple layered X-ray imaging of suspicious lung area: Layered running multiple "slices", in the center of which is the pathological focus.
- Computed tomography of the chest or magnetic - rezonanasnaya tomography with intravenous contrast (the introduction of a radiopaque drug intravenously) or without it: allows you to layered cuts and a more detailed review of pathologically altered focus, differentiate tumor, cyst or tuberculosis changes from each other by characteristic signs.
- Bronchoscopy: used to detect tumors of the bronchial tree (central cancer) or germination in the bronchus of large peripheral lung tumors, this study allows you to visually detect the tumor, to decide on its borders, and most importantly, perform a biopsy - to take the research a piece of the tumor.
- In some cases, use so-called tumor markers - blood tests for proteins produced by the tumor and not present in the healthy body.For lung cancer tumor markers are named: NSE- used to identify small cell cancer, SSC, CYFRA- marker for the detection of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, REA- universal marker.But they all have a low diagnostic value and are usually used in the treated patients to detect possible metastasis in the early stages.
- sputum - has a low diagnostic value, it allows to suspect the presence of a tumor in detecting abnormal cells.
- Bronchography (introduction of contrast medium into the bronchial tree): an outdated method, now it replaced bronchoscopy.
- thoracoscopy (introduction into the pleural cavity through the puncture camera to inspect the surface of the lungs) - allows in case of doubt, to interpret these or other changes in the lungs visually and perform a biopsy.
- tumor biopsy under control CT performed in unclear cases.
Unfortunately, there is no universal method of inspection, allowing one hundred percent of lung cancers to distinguish from other illnesses as cancer can masquerade as other pathologies, with this in mind, use the whole complex survey.But if the diagnosis is unclear until the end of the resort to the diagnostic operation, so as not to miss a malignant tumor.
Stage (degree) of lung cancer:
Stage 1: the tumor in the lung is not more than 3 cm in size or tumor of the bronchus extending within the same proportion, no metastases in the surrounding l / nodes;
Stage 2: lung tumors more than 3 cm, invades the pleura, covers bronchus, causing atelectasis of one lobe;
Stage 3: The tumor moves to adjacent structures, atelectasis of all lung metastases in nearby lymph uzlah- hilar and mediastinal, supraclavicular;
Stage 4: the tumor invades surrounding ORGAN heart, great vessels, or joins the fluid in the pleural cavity (metastatic pleural effusion).
Treatment of lung cancer
in the treatment of lung cancer, like any other cancer, the leading and the only method that gives hope for a cure is surgery.
There are several options for operation on the lungs:
- Removal of lobe - meets the principles of treatment of lung cancer.
- Marginal resection (removal of the tumor only) - used in the elderly and patients with severe concomitant diseases, for which a large operation is dangerous.
- Removal of the entire lung (pneumonectomy) - with tumors 2 to the central stage cancers, stage 2-3 for peripheral.
- Combined operation - to remove a portion adjacent involved in tumor organs - the heart, blood vessels, ribs.
In identifying small cell cancer is the leading treatment for chemotherapy, as this form of cancer is most sensitive to conservative treatments.The effectiveness of chemotherapy is high enough to achieve a good effect for a few years.
For the treatment of lung cancer using platinum drugs - the most effective to date, but no less toxic than others, so be entered against the backdrop of large amounts of fluid (up to 4 liters).
Another method of treatment - radiotherapy: be permanently used in lung tumors 3-4 stages, allows to achieve good results in small cell cancer, especially when combined with chemotherapy.Standard dosage in radiation treatment of 60-70 Gy.
light "folk remedies" Cancer treatment is unacceptable, the use of toxic substances can lead to poisoning of the already weakened by a tumor of the body and worsen the patient's condition.
prognosis of lung cancer
prognosis of lung cancer depends on the stage and histological structure of light:
with small cell carcinoma prognosis is better than in other forms of cancer, since it is more sensitive to chemotherapy and radiation treatment than other forms of cancer.
favorable outcome is possible to treat cancer early stages 1-2.