Breast cancer ( breast cancer) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Breast cancer - a malignant tumor arising from breast tissue, characterized by a fairly aggressive growth and the ability to actively metastatic.
Causes of breast cancer
The causes of breast cancer are most often hormonal changes in the body: the entry into menopause, when there is an active restructuring of the hormonal regulation of the body of women, lose their activity ovaries, decreased production of progesterone and estrogen, the body is experiencing a "hormonal crisis".The mammary gland and endometrium (mucous membrane of the uterus) is the most responsive to these changes, breast tissue starts to dissolve and are replaced by fat.Research found that female genital gormonam- estrogen, plays the leading role in the development of breast cancer.Excess hormones in the body creates a favorable background for the development of the disease.The least active hormones estrogen behave during and after pregnancy - during breastfeeding.It is proved that childbirth and a long lactation (over 1 year) to red
In addition, patients with a family close relatives with breast cancer (mothers and sisters) the risk of developing a tumor increasing by more than half - familial forms of cancer.
Benign breast diseases such as fibrocystic breast disease, or ductal papillomatosis fibroadenoz by themselves do not lead to cancer, but at the same time, create an unfavorable background for its development.
The cause of radiation exposure may be the breast tumors, eg irradiation of the thorax for other diseases (lung tumors, the lymphatic system), prolonged and frequent chest X-ray on the inflammatory disease or pulmonary tuberculosis.
constitutional obesity can lead to the development of breast cancer and the female reproductive system, with an excess of adipose tissue in the body, it becomes a self-endocrine organ and begins to actively produce hormones-estrogens, whose action and provokes the development of tumors.
Symptoms of breast cancer
There are several forms of the growth of breast cancer:
- nodular form, the most common, is characterized by a dense nodule of 0.5 to 5 cm and more, is characterized by all of the following symptoms for her;
- diffuse: psevdovospalitelnaya (mastitopodobnaya) rozhistopodobnaya and armored form.All of them are very aggressive, are growing very rapidly, almost lightning speed, while the tumor has no clear boundaries, "spreading" in the mammary gland and skin.For the first two forms are typical signs of inflammatory reaction: breast tenderness, bright red color of her skin, the body temperature rises to 39 degrees C. In view of these symptoms are frequent diagnostic errors and patients treated for inflammatory diseases, in whose name and named form databreast cancer.When armored cancer tumor covers the mammary gland as a "peel" pulling it and reducing in size.
In some cases, breast cancer manifests in the form of metastases in the lymph nodes on the affected side, it is often not possible to detect the tumor itself - talk about breast cancer hidden.
For small tumors of the breast, of any symptoms arise.The most observant women or their husbands may detect a tumor in the gland node randomly, but in a large breast to detect small-sized unit is difficult.The revealed a nodule may be painful when pressed, round, smooth and podvizhnym- this speaks in favor of a benign tumor.Signs of malignancy other: knot tight feels like a stone, its surface is rough, it is stationary or slightly shifted, can be firmly fixed to the surrounding tissue or skin, usually painless, can reach considerable size (more than 3 to 5 cm, sometimes 10-15cm).
necessary to evaluate the surface of the skin above the tumor: the malignant process will be observed skin retraction, picking up in the folds, wrinkles, a symptom of "lemon peel" - a local swelling of the skin over the tumor, may be a direct tumor invasion to the skin surface, then it becomes bright redcoloring and expansion in the form of a "cauliflower".
Indrawing skin cancer
breast tumor surface component may bleed and fester.
In addition, it should assess the state of the axillary lymph nodes, they may be slightly enlarged, mobile and painless - it should not be afraid, but if the nodes are defined as large and heavy, and sometimes merging with each other - thisHe speaks of their metastatic disease.
Sometimes swelling may occur at the hands of the tumor - is a bad sign, says an advanced stage and there metastases in the axillary lymph nodes - there blocking the outflow of blood and lymphatic fluid from the upper limb, arises lymphostasis.
Swelling of the hands on the side of the breast tumor
As can be seen from the above, you need to start treatment immediately after detection of the tumor, it is very important as it is possible the early detection of pathological changes in the self-help techniques.
Why do we need self-examination?
It is very important to perform saoobsledovaniya techniques to identify pathological tumors at an early stage, as they do not always have the opportunity to apply to the medical institution.The more you obsleduete breast, the faster you will notice the appearance of it changes.
how to correctly perform self-examination?
The technique of self-breast is as follows: First you need to assess the visual changes in the body - get up in front of the mirror and compare the symmetry in size, color of the skin, the contours of the breast, nipple color and size.The next point - the feeling: alternately with both hands prominaetsya the breast from top to bottom on each side, and then pay attention to the armpits.When the detection of any changes - pain, swelling, nodules, skin retraction and so on should immediately consult a doctor.Self-examination, it is desirable to carry out at least once a month.
If you find yourself in the breast tumor, the first thing you need to perform a mammogram (x-ray of the breast), for patients under 45 years of mammography is an alternative to ultrasound.This study reveals the minimal changes in the breast tissue, to characterize them at the same time as benign or malignant on certain radiological signs.
The next step in the detection of tumor pathology is, tumor biopsy - taking a small piece of thin needle for examination under a microscope.Then you can more accurately judge the nature of the tumor, but a comprehensive response is possible only after removal of the tumor site.
In some cases ductography (from the Latin "duktus" - duct) - X-ray of the breast with the prior administration of a radiopaque material in the ducts.Use this research to identify intraductal papilloma - benign tumors of the milk ducts, which appears bloody discharge from the nipple and degenerates into cancer.
for suspected cancer or confirmed (X-ray and biopsy results) breast cancer research is carried out, at a minimum: ultrasound examination of axillary lymph node metastasis to identify them;chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound to eliminate the presence of distant metastases in other organs.
In some cases, use so-called tumor markers - blood tests for proteins produced by the tumor and not present in the healthy body.low diagnostic value and is commonly used in the treated patients to detect metastases in the earliest date for breast cancer is 15.3 Ca he possesses.
Another new massive study was to analyze tumor receptors for hormones - estrogen and progesterone (ER, PR).Patients with positive samples subject to further treatment - anti-hormonal.
recently studied a new receptor oncomarker: Her2neu, its presence in tumor tissue is a very bad sign and indicates its high aggressiveness.
When identifying pathological formations breast should immediately consult a doctor, it can be a gynecologist or surgeon, but if possible, better to turn to an oncologist.
is very important - that all women after age 50 (or upon the occurrence of menopause) should be performed yearly routine mammograms to detect cancer at an early stage.
Video for the diagnosis of breast diseases
Treatment of breast
main in the treatment of breast cancer, of course, is a surgical method - removal of the affected organ tumor.Any other treatment gives support, a temporary effect.
various options transactions:
- removal of the entire breast with fatty tissue and lymph nodes of the axillary region on the same side (most preferred);
- removal of breast tumor site and underarm lymph nodes from the same direction, followed by radiation therapy to the operation zone;
- removal of the breast, pectoral muscle, blood vessels, and in some cases and edges - for large size and extent of the tumor.
Often surgery is complemented by some specific anti-tumor treatment:
- in the absence of metastases using maintenance therapy - anti-hormonal drug (tamoxifen) for 5 years, in order to prevent the return of disease and the emergence of metastases.
- confirmed the presence of metastases in the axillary lymph nodes is required to use radiation and chemotherapy.Radiation therapy - a special apparatus for irradiation of a small dose daily for one month.Chemotherapy - intravenous chemotherapy drugs.
- the detection of metastases in other organs (liver, lungs, bones and so on) is required to use chemotherapy, designed to reduce the size of metastases, or completely destroy them.
Metastases - a screenings of the main tumor, with its structure and capable of growing, disrupting the function of those organs where they develop.metastases appearance is connected with the natural growth of the tumor: tissue grows fast food enough not to all its elements, part of the cell loses contact with the rest, breaks away from the tumor and into the blood vessels, spreads throughout the body and into the bodies of a small and well-developed vasculature (liver, lungs, brains, bone), which settles from the bloodstream and begins to grow, form colonies - metastases.In some cases, metastases can reach huge sizes (10 cm) and lead to the death of patients by poisoning the tumor waste products, and disruption of the body.
Breast cancer most commonly spreads to the nearby lymph nodes - axillary and retrosternal depending on the location of the tumor;from distant bodies in the first place on the frequency of bone lesions are (more often - the bones of the pelvis and the spine), but may be affected and any;the lungs and pleura (the lining of the lungs a coating), in the liver, brain, ovaries, skin and other organs.If metastases are rare, it is possible to remove them - it gives a better chance for a cure.If they are numerous - only possible maintenance chemotherapy.Big problems delivering pleurisy patients - metastases lining of the lungs, which leads to a violation of its permeability and accumulation of fluid in the cavity of the lungs, leading to compression of organs - lungs, heart, and cause shortness of breath, chest tightness and exhaustion patients.
Treatment of breast cancer in Assuta
Israeli private clinic "Assuta" offers treatment of breast cancer with the use of all modern developments of Western medicine.First of all, it is organ-operation, allowing the chest to maintain a complete removal of the tumor, "with clean edges."In advanced stages of the disease can be provedenamastektomiya with simultaneous plastic surgery for breast reconstruction.The operation is performed leading Israeli surgeon Professor ShlomoShneybaum.Clinic Patients also undergo diagnosis and treatment of the famous Israeli oncologist - Professor MosheInbara.
«Assuta" is equipped with the latest equipment, such as TrueBeam system, which allows to reduce the duration and number of sessions of radiotherapy in breast cancer.Such equipment allows to avoid damage to healthy tissue during irradiation of the tumor.
Get treatment program and the exact price for the treatment of breast cancer in the Israeli clinic Assuta & gt; & gt;
Complications of breast cancer tumor may include: bleeding from large tumors, inflammation of the tumor and surrounding tissue, complications related to metastasis: pathological (in metastasis zone) fractures, pleurisy with the rapid accumulation of fluid and wheezing, shortness of breathwith multiple metastases to the lungs, liver failure with multiple metastases to the liver and other.
Complications associated with surgery may include the following: inflammation in the surgical wound area, long lymphorrhea (expiration of the lymph - a light portion of the blood), associated with the removal of axillary lymph nodes and delays the healing of surgical wounds;lymphoedema hands associated with violation of the outflow due to the removal of a large number of nodes and the current slowdown in the lymph fluid.
And of course we should say that untreated patients suffering from breast cancer die very quickly within 1-2 years after the detection of tumors.Always deal effectively with a small primary tumor than tumor that gave metastases.
Treatment of folk remedies in this case is unacceptable: it is impossible to apply any lotions, decoctions or infusions, in some cases, they can accelerate the growth of the tumor.
itself during treatment for breast cancer can reach from several weeks (subject to operation) to several years (in the case of maintenance therapy).After treatment, possibly wearing a prosthesis after removal of sutures and wound healing or breast reconstruction (plastic surgery).It is not recommended to sunbathe, absolutely contraindicated in any physiotherapy, hot tubs, baths and saunas, as they provoke the return of the tumor.
prognosis and survival in breast cancer.
Breast cancer ranks first on the development and frequency of death from cancer in women.It registered annually up to 1.5 million new cases of cancer of the body in the world.He is leading in the number of female deaths (more than 400 thousand deaths per year).At the time of diagnosis, 11.5% of women have distant metastases, and 10.3% of women die within the first year of steady progression.In Russia, the incidence of breast cancer each year varies from 33.7 to 40 cases per 100,000 women.In the structure of malignant tumors in women with breast cancer is about 19%.The risk of ill have about 10 each woman in Russia.
Despite the improved results of diagnostics and treatment, mortality from breast cancer in Russia is not reduced due to the detection of diseases in later periods.
Breast cancer is diagnosed in the following proportions: 1-2 stage is detected in 61% of cases, 26% stadiya- 3 and 4 stadiya- 12%.
incidence of breast cancer increases with age: the growth begins after age 40 and peaks at 60-65 years.