Kidney Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Cancer kidneys, ureters and bladder attributed to malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract.
Kidney cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the renal parenchyma and the ability to rapidly destructive growth and metastasis.
Most kidney tumors common in men, the average age of patients 55 to 75 years.
Causes of kidney tumors:
- Smoking - the risk of developing kidney cancer in smokers increases by 30-60%.
- Changes in hormonal levels.
- Hereditary causes familial tumor.
- Increased weight tela- obesity increases the risk of kidney cancer by 20%.
Symptoms of kidney cancer
1. Non-specific symptoms:
rises in body temperature, weakness, fatigue, dizziness, weight loss and loss of appetite.
2. Specific symptoms:
In the initial stages of kidney tumors are asymptomatic and are detected by chance during examination for other diseases.With the growth of tumors appear the following symptoms:
hematuria - blood in the urine, a small amount, or in the form of massive clots that occur for no reason a
palpable tumor formation in the abdominal cavity or an enlarged kidney.
pain: may occur during hematuria when blockage of the ureter, tensile kidney capsule or tumor invasion, during germination and compression of the nerve trunks or large veins of the abdominal cavity.
Diagnosing kidney cancer
Testing for kidney cancer include:
- Ultrasonography abdominal organs, kidneys, retroperitoneal lymph nodes: identifies nodal education in the body, to assess its size, the involvement of the surrounding tissues, large vessels and lymphaticnodes.
- Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging used for more accurate diagnosis of tumor of kidney damage, exclusion of distant metastases.
- In unclear cases, some patients show percutaneous needle biopsy kidney tumor under ultrasound control or computerized tomography is carried out by a thin needle under local anesthesia injected into the thickness of the tumor and take on microscopic examination of a small piece of tissue.This technique allows to confirm the presence of cancer in almost 100% of cases.
- excretory urography (X-rays) - a rather outdated method of research to evaluate the functional capacity of the body for planning operations of organ (partial nephrectomy).
- Radioisotope study of kidney - scintigraphy , to evaluate kidney function and the degree of its violation under the influence of the tumor as well as the suspect nature of the tumor (benign or malignant).
- In some cases, when large kidney tumors, angiography is used - the study of kidney vessels with intravenous contrast, to evaluate the involvement in the process surrounding large vessels.
Angiography.The arrow shows a tumor in the lower pole of the kidney, renal artery konstrastirovana
- Cystoscopy - endoscopic examination of the bladder, is used to identify the source of bleeding hematuria, bladder tumor elimination.
- Additional methods of the detection of kidney tumors are: chest X-ray may skeleton study to exclude distant metastases.
growth stage kidney tumors:
Stage 1: the tumor is not more than 7 cm, limited to kidney tissue;
Stage 2: Tumor more than 7 cm, limited to kidney tissue;
Stage 3: Tumor involving large veins or with invasion of the adrenal gland or surrounding tissue or the presence of metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes;
Stage 4: the tumor grows into nearby organs, there is more than one metastasis in nearby lymph nodes or distant metastases.
Schematic representation of the upper pole of the kidney tumor with invasion in the adrenal gland and pelvis
treatment of kidney malignancies
leading method of treatment, which gives hope for recovery in the event of any cancer, including kidney cancer is surgery.
There are several options on the kidney operations:
- nephrectomy - removal of the entire affected kidney, performed at 2-3 tumor stage, when large scale formation and germination in the renal pelvis under normal functional capacity of the second kidney;
- partial nephrectomy - removal of a portion (1/3 or half) kidney tumor, used for small tumors (less than 4 cm) in young patients and during the second tackle kidney function.
- combined operation - the removal of a kidney from a part of the surrounding organs, large vessels used for large size of the tumor, its germination in the above-mentioned tissues.
In some cases, the treatment is added radiation therapy - exposure on remote kidney bed, in the presence of large tumors and metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes.In the presence of distant metastases, when they are isolated, the operations for their removal.If metastases set and remove them is not possible, using immunotherapy and chemotherapy to reduce the tumor in size.
Cancer Prevention urogenital organs
First of all smoking cessation leads to a reduction in the incidence of cancer of genitourinary organs, in particular, the risk of developing kidney cancer is reduced by 15%.Of great importance is the fight against obesity, eating fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of developing kidney cancer.
Medical consultation for kidney cancer
1. How often do you meet with kidney cancer and what are the forecasts for its treatment today?Kidney cancer
occurs nowadays more and about 3% of malignant diseases of the internal organs.
treatment results depend on the tumor stage, tumor size, at the initial stages of survival approaching 90%
oncologist Barinov N.YU