Prostate Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
malignant tumor of male genital organs - tumors that affect the prostate gland, testes and seminal vesicles, penis.Among the tumors of the male genital organs in the first place in the incidence of prostate gland is located.
Prostate cancer is ranked 4th most common cancer among others.
Causes of prostate cancer
Hormonal factors: it is proved that an overabundance of male sex hormones in the body - androgens, such as testosterone, may be the starting point of developing cancer.Sex hormones cause rapid growth and development of prostate epithelial cells, which in turn can result in malignant transformation.
In the development of the disease, in addition, genetic predisposition plays a role and diet.
2 times increases the likelihood of developing cancer of the prostate in men, whose close relatives (father or brother) suffered from cancer of the body;if two or more sick family members, the risk of developing cancer increases in 5- 11 times.
overabundance of fatty foods also adversely affects prosta
Risk factors also include ethnicity, sexual behavior, the amount of fat consumed and occupational hazards.
Average time of developing prostate cancer is about 20 years.
stages of prostate cancer:
Stage 1: The tumor is found by chance, and does not manifest itself, it takes no more than 5% of the volume of the prostate gland;
Stage 2: The tumor takes from 5 to 50% of the volume of the prostate or spread to both her share;
Stage 3: tumor invades the capsule of the prostate or passes to the surrounding tissue (tissue, seminal vesicles);
Stage 4: the tumor invades adjacent organs or there are distant metastases.
cancer - cancer
Symptoms of prostate cancer
1. Symptoms of obstruction: the weakening and intermittent urine stream, sensation of incomplete emptying of the bladder, frequent urination, urinary incontinence.
2. The symptoms associated with local tumor growth: the presence of blood in urine or semen, urinary incontinence, impotence, pain in the suprapubic region and perineum.
3. Symptoms associated with distant metastases: bone pain, back pain, lower limb edema associated with metastases in the inguinal or retroperitoneal lymph nodes, loss of body weight and appetite, weakness, exhaustion.
Examination for tumors of the prostate gland
The easiest and most popular method of examination of the prostate gland is a digital rectal examination.An experienced physician may suspect the development of prostate cancer in the early stages and its small size.To carry out this study should be to all the men who suffer from urinary problems.
Digital rectal examination
Another diagnostic method has a higher precision, is to determine the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).Scientific evidence shows that elevated PSA levels are directly linked to the development of prostate cancer, PSA is normal for a healthy male is 4 ng / ml, but over the age of 60 years is a normal level of 6.5 ng / mL.If you exceed the normal values of this marker shows a needle biopsy of the prostate.You should know that when the PSA level of 4-10 ng / mL suggest benign prostatic disease.When PSA levels above 10 ng / ml, a high probability of organ cancer.But, in some cases with tumors of the prostate PSA can not be upgraded - about 13% of men.
In addition, specialists use a variety of modifying codes for more accurate diagnosis of the tumor.
Ultrasound examination of the prostate and transrectal ultrasound are used for immediate diagnosis of the tumor, as well as to perform a biopsy the prostate.
biopsy of the prostate gland - the main method of diagnosis of cancer.The method consists in the fence column gland tissue for analysis under a microscope using a special thin needle under ultrasound sensor and control, usually take from 6 to 12 tissue sections.
In some cases, supplement the survey using magnetic resonance or computed tomography and pelvic viscera.
Treatment of prostate tumors
There are several methods of treatment for prostate cancer:
Surgical : perform surgery to remove the prostate (prostatectomy), justified in young patients with no comorbidities and small size of the tumor.Complications of surgery may be the impotence, but has now developed a technique sparing operations, allowing to preserve erectile function.
Radiation therapy: used in 1- 3 stages of prostate cancer.Treatment benefits include the possibility of a complete cure, there is no need for surgical treatment and out-patient treatment flow rate.However, radiation therapy is not without drawbacks: it can develop urinary incontinence, impotence in 60% of cases, diarrhea, bleeding.
Recently prevalence is received brahiterapiya- insertion of radioactive sources into the prostate tissue, wherein the treatment achieves good effect, with fewer side effects.
Bilateral orchiectomy - removal of the testes.It is used when it is impossible removal of the tumor or in the presence of distant metastases.It allows you to reduce the level of male sex hormones in the body by 95%.
In addition, the presence of comorbidity, and distant metastases are used tableted hormones (goserelin and others), they are a means of prolonging life.
prognosis of prostate tumors.
After surgical treatment the survival rate is 70-80% of patients.After radiotherapy 5 years experienced more than 60-80% of patients.
complications of prostate cancer
connected with the local growth of the tumor: urinary incontinence, impotence, the development of urine-genital infections, bleeding from the genital tract.
Consultation of the oncologist at CGS prostate:
Q: How common is prostate cancer and the more dangerous it is?
A: Prostate cancer is now quite common, most common frequency it stands in 4th place among malignant tumors in men.This is due to the natural aging of the population, as well as to the common use of fatty foods, changes in dietary patterns, particularly in developed countries, leading to obesity and increased synthesis of sex hormones in the male body.
danger of prostate cancer is in its asymptomatic early and fast, the rapid spread on the stage of distant metastases, which quickly leads to the death of patients despite intensive treatment conducted.
Question: How to diagnose prostate cancer in the early stages?
Answer: Currently, there are quite informative and cheaper test to diagnose the pathology of the prostate gland in the early stages at the large masses of the male population - a PSA.It carries out the research by collecting blood from a vein, followed by her research on the level of the marker.All men over 45 should perform an annual PSA-test.A further annually perform ultrasound of the prostate, allowing suspect the presence of nodules in the body even at their smaller sizes.
oncologist Barinov N.YU