Astigmatism - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Astigmatism - a condition in which one eye combine different types or different degrees of refraction of the refraction type.
Refraction at astigmatism
There is such a thing as the main meridians - are two perpendicular planes of the eye.Depending on their refraction distinguish astigmatism:
- direct - more refracts the vertical meridian,
- reverse - more refracts the horizontal meridian,
- with oblique axes
By type of astigmatism can be right and wrong (often corneal due to its defeat traumatic,degenerative and inflammatory processes).The first form in one meridian the same refractive power.
- simple - with him in one of the meridians emmetropia (normal refraction)
- difficult - in both meridians, the same refraction (myopia or hyperopia)
- mixed - in the meridians of the different types of
Normal refractionto correct astigmatism of 0.75 diopters considered physiological, it will not affect visual acuity and requires correction.
symptoms of astigmatism
Symptoms, which can suspect the presence of the disease: the patient confuses similar letters rearranges their places, see things distorted, reduced visual acuity.Pronounced eyestrain symptoms (rapid visual fatigue, bloating, "sand" in the eyes), there is intolerance of points and their frequent replacement.Almost always astigmatism combined with refractive errors, myopia or hyperopia.
So seeing people with astigmatism:
Usually, the first signs of astigmatism appear at school age, but often in adults.Careful examination to exclude such a serious disease, such as keratoconus.
- visometry (visual acuity) with and without correction.Put on trial frame.In front of one eye is opaque screen before another put different strength lenses (with astigmatism cylinder that refract only in one meridian) and achieve the maximum visual acuity,
- skiascopy (shadow test) - define refraction with the help of the shadow movements in the area of the pupil by oscillatingmovements indirect ophthalmoscope when viewed transmitted light,
- refractometry in a state of mydriasis gives the most accurate results,
- biomicroscopy to identify possible causes of astigmatism (an inflammatory or degenerative diseases of the cornea),
- Oftalmometres and ultrasound eye to determine the anterior-posterior segment, ie.to.astigmatism, in most cases combined with myopia and hyperopia,
- ophthalmoscopy to detect diseases of the vitreous body and fundus,
- computer corneal topography to determine the degree of corneal astigmatism.During the study, measured the thickness and refractive power of more than 8,000 points.Identify the slightest violation of refraction.
Treatment of astigmatism
astigmatism should be corrected and treated promptly to prevent the development of complications.Correction: glasses, contact, laser and microsurgical .Indications: reduction of visual acuity, asthenopia symptoms and progression of nearsightedness or farsightedness.
first type ( points) many patients poorly tolerated, but still a large part prefers wearing glasses.Lenses made special, with a cylindrical component.Points are selected strictly individually.They can not just buy in optics or in the market.The strength of the cylindrical lens must coincide with the degree of astigmatism, and spherical are selected according to the rules of myopia or hyperopia.These glasses are prescribed for continuous wear.
Contact correction is carried out by means of toric lenses.Its dignity that forms a single optical system with the eye, as opposed to points which are at a distance.To use toric lenses require special skills that teach an ophthalmologist.Night (orthokeratology) lenses are also found use in a small degree of astigmatism.
If there is a difference in the optical power of the cornea, or thickness, corneal topography after possible astigmotomiya , where applied mikronasechkami, weaken the strong meridian, on the periphery.Indications: astigmatism more than 6 diopters, children under 18 years of age, thin cornea (laser correction is not possible), as well as different refraction in the meridians.
recovery and moisturizing eye tissue with astigmatism.
In astigmatism, as well as in many other ophthalmic diseases of the eye is necessary to provide hydration and recovery by creating a protective film on the surface of the cornea.With such a task handle means based on hyaluronic acid, for example, eye drops "Artelak splash", which are shown to eliminate light eye fatigue symptoms arising up to 2-3 times a day.With vigorous manifestation of dryness plaguing person throughout the day, you should pay attention to the drop "Artelak Balance", which is included in the tread, providing long-lasting moisturizing effect, and vitamin B12, which has strong antioxidant properties.
Indications for excimer laser surgery is astigmatism up to 4 diopters.This patient, virtually painless procedure, after which the patient immediately notice a significant improvement in visual acuity.Its essence lies in the fact that after the formation of the valve, the cornea is ground in clearly defined areas to a predetermined depth.After the operation is to limit physical and visual load, to protect eyes from injury (wearing glasses, for example), hot tubs, a sauna, a drink for a month.Recommended drops instillation dexamethasone (dexamethasone-Oftan, Maksideks) first 3 times a day, reducing to 1 times, 3 weeks;antibacterial (Tobrex, Floksal, Oftakviks) 3 times a day for a week, as well as moisturizing drops situationally (Oftagel, Oksial, Sisteyn).Required regular checkups ophthalmologist.
1-2 times a year to take courses vitamins (Vitrum, Okyuvayt-lutein, bilberry-forte et al.) And hardware treatment (laser stimulation, computer programs).
untimely and inadequate treatment can lead to complications such as reduced visual acuity to the development of amblyopia ( "lazy" eye, in which the vision is not improved by the correction), strabismus.
most important for health - a disease prevention.With regard to the need to dispense astigmatism visual load, but rather alternate them with physical exercises and gymnastics to the eye.It is strictly forbidden to read lying down or in the dark.Perhaps the use of special perforation points.
Ophthalmologist Letyuk TZ