Optic nerve atrophy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
atrophy of the optic nerve is called the total or partial destruction of its fibers with replacement of connective tissue.
Causes of optic nerve atrophy
The reasons of occurrence of atrophy of the optic include heredity and congenital abnormalities;it may be due to various eye diseases, pathological processes in the retina and the optic nerve (inflammation, degeneration, trauma, toxic damage, edema, congestion, various circulatory disorders, compression of the optic nerve, and others.), disease of the nervous system or with common diseases.
Most optic atrophy develops due to defects of the central nervous system (tumors, syphilitic defeat of a brain abscess, encephalitis, meningitis, multiple sclerosis, injuries of the skull), intoxication, alcohol poisoning methyl alcohol, and others.
also cause the development of optic nerve atrophymay be hypertension, atherosclerosis, quinine poisoning, beriberi, starvation, profuse bleeding.
atrophy of the optic nerve appears as a result of obstruction of t
Symptoms of optic nerve atrophy
There are primary and secondary optic atrophy, partial and total, complete and progressive, one-way and two-way.
main symptom of optic nerve atrophy is a decrease in visual acuity, intractable correction.Depending on the type of atrophy this symptom is manifested in different ways.So, with the progression of the atrophy is gradually reduced eyesight, which may lead to total atrophy of the optic nerve and consequently to a complete loss of vision.This process can occur within a few days to several months.
In partial atrophy of the same process at some point stops and vision ceases to deteriorate.Thus, isolated progressive atrophy of the optic nerves and complete.
Violation of atrophy can be quite varied.This may be a change in the visual field (usually the restriction when missing "peripheral vision"), until the development of "tunnel vision" when a person looks as if through a straw, that is,see objects that are only in front of him, often appear scotoma, iedark spots on any part of the field of view;it may be a disorder of color perception.
Changing fields of view may be not only a "tunnel", it depends on the localization of the pathological process.For example, cattle occurrence (dark spots) right in front of the eyes indicates lesion of the nerve fibers closer to the center, or directly in the center of the retina department, visual field loss is caused by lesions of the peripheral nerves, with deeper lesions of the optic nerve may skip half of the visual field (or temporalor nasal).These changes may be either in one or both eyes.
survey of suspected optic atrophy
Engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment in this pathology is unacceptable, because something like this happens and peripheral cataract, when first disrupted peripheral vision, and then central departments involved.Also, atrophy of the optic nerves can be confused with amblyopia, in which vision can also be significantly reduced, and not to succumb to the correction.It should be noted that the above abnormality is not as dangerous as atrophy of the optic nerve.Aatrofiya can be not only a separate disease or a consequence of some of the local pathology in the eye, but also a symptom of a serious and sometimes fatal disease of the nervous system, so it is very important to establish the cause of the atrophy of the optic nerve as early as possible.
If you have similar symptoms should immediately consult an ophthalmologist and neurologist.These two experts shall take part in the basic treatment of this disease.Also, there is also a separate branch of medicine - Neuro, doctors - Neuropathy, which are engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.If necessary, in the diagnosis and treatment can participate as neurosurgeons, internists, ENT, infectious disease, oncology, toxicology and others.
diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy is usually not difficult.It is based on the determination of the severity and visual field (perimetry) for color vision research.The ophthalmologist must perform ophthalmoscopy, in which reveals pallor of the optic nerve, the narrowing of blood vessels and fundus measuring intraocular pressure.Changing contours of the optic nerve disc indicates the primary or secondary disease, ie,if its clear contours, it is likely to have developed the disease without apparent reason, if the contours stushёvany, then maybe it poslevospalitelnaya poslezastoynaya or atrophy.
If necessary, carry out X-ray examination (craniography mandatory image region sella), computer or magnetic resonance brain imaging, electrophysiological methods of investigation and fluorescence-angiographic methods in which with the help of a special substance, administered intravenously, check the permeability of retinal blood vessels.
Informative can be and laboratory research methods: complete blood count, blood chemistry, test for syphilis or borellioz.
treatment of optic nerve atrophy
treatment of optic nerve atrophy is a very difficult task for doctors.You need to know that the destruction of nerve fibers can not be restored.At any effect of the treatment can only hope in restoring the functioning of the nerve fibers in the process of destruction, which still retained their livelihoods.If you miss this moment, the sight on the patient eye can be lost forever.
the treatment of atrophy must be borne in mind that it is often not an independent disease, but a consequence of certain pathological processes that affect different parts of the visual pathway.Therefore, treatment of optic atrophy should be combined with the elimination of the reasons that caused it.In the case of the timely elimination of the reasons and, if atrophy has not yet had time to develop, over a period of 2-3 weeks to 1-2 months there is a normalization pattern of the fundus and the restoration of visual function.
Treatment is aimed at the elimination of edema and inflammation in the optic nerve, to improve his circulation and trophism (nutrition), the conductivity of the restoration is not fully destroyed nerve fibers.
But it should be noted that the treatment of optic nerve atrophy is long, the effect of it is weak, and sometimes non-existent, especially in severe cases.Therefore, it should be initiated as early as possible.
As mentioned above, the main thing is the treatment of the underlying disease, against which conduct complex treatment directly to the optic nerve atrophy.For this purpose, various forms of drugs administered: eyedrops, injections, both general and local;tablets electrophoresis.Treatment is aimed at
- improvement of blood circulation in the blood vessels that feed the nerve - vasodilators (komplamin, nicotinic acid, no-spa, papaverine, Dibazolum, aminophylline, trental, Halidorum, Sermion), anticoagulants (heparin, tiklid);
- to improve the metabolic processes in the tissues of the nerve and stimulate recovery altered tissue - biogenic stimulators (aloe extract, torfot, vitreous body, etc..), Vitamins (Ascorutinum, B1, B2, B6), enzymes (fibrinolizin, lidasa), amino acids (glutamic acid), immune stimulants (ginseng, eleutorokokk);
- on resorption of pathological processes and stimulate the metabolism (fosfaden, preduktal, pirogenal) on relief of the inflammatory process - hormonal drugs (prednisone, dexamethasone);to improve the central nervous system (emoksipin, Cerebrolysin, fezam, nootropil, cavinton).
drugs should be taken on prescription after diagnosis.The doctor will choose the best treatment, given the comorbidities.In the absence of concomitant somatic pathology alone can take no-silos, papaverine, vitamins, amino acids, emoksipin, nootropil, fezam.
But should not engage in self-medicate with this serious disease.Also used physiotherapy, acupuncture;developed methods for magnetic, laser and electrical stimulation of the optic nerve.
repeat the treatment after a few months.
Power atrophy of the optic nerve should be a full, varied and rich in vitamins.The food should be consumed as much fresh fruits and vegetables as possible, meat, liver, dairy products, cereals and others.
With a significant reduction of decided the question of attribution of disability.
visually impaired appointed rehabilitation course, which aims to eliminate or compensate life activity limitations that result from loss of vision.
folk remedies Treatment dangerous because valuable time is lost when cure atrophy and restore sight to more possible.Note that in this disease folk remedies ineffective.
Complications optic atrophy
diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy is very serious.At the slightest reduction of an urgent need to see a doctor, so as not to miss the chance of recovery.In the absence of treatment and progression of eye disease may disappear altogether, and restore it will be impossible.In addition, it is important to identify the reason for the fault which occurred optic atrophy, and as soon as possible to remove it, because it can be fraught with not only the loss of vision, but also extremely dangerous.
Preventing atrophy of the optic nerve
To reduce the risk of atrophy of the optic nerve, you must promptly treat diseases that lead to atrophy of the occurrence, to prevent intoxication, blood transfusions when breakthrough bleeding and, of course, promptly see a doctor at the slightest signvisual impairment.
Ophthalmologist Odnoochko EA