Depression in children and adolescents - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Recently in the press began to appear more and more reports of cases of suicide among adolescents.The most common causes of suicide are depression.Such conditions do not develop in an hour and not per day.Depression - a long flowing state.The duration of the depression is most often more than two years, however, may occur and less short-term state (from 2 weeks to 2 years).
Causes of depression in children
of depression contribute to the following factors:
1. Pathology of the early neonatal period: chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia, birth of children with asphyxia, the presence of neonatal encephalopathy, intrauterine infections.All these conditions lead to brain damage.
2. Family environment: incomplete family, family conflicts, "sverhopeka" mothers neglect by parents, lack of proper sex education from parents.Very often in single-parent families, children may not tell their parent about all their problems, especially in families where only the father bringing up a daughter.In such families chil
3. Adolescence.As mentioned above, adolescence - a period of experimentation.In addition to the previously described problems, this period is hormonal and structural adjustment of the body.The girls appear first menstruation, nocturnal emissions in boys (nocturnal emissions), body shape changes, appear youthful acne.Due to the overabundance of hormones become more aggressive children, among them there are leaders who dictate a particular lifestyle.If you do not sootvetstvuesh this way, you can not get into the communication group, and then you find yourself left out of public life.All this may lead to the alienation of the child from society, the emergence of thoughts that he did not like everything.
4. Frequent change of residence.The child must be a circle of contacts and friends.With frequent changes of residence the child can not make full of friends with whom he could spend free time, share secrets.
5. Problems in the study.Modern educational process is too overloaded with subjects, not every child is able to cope with the school load.Backlog for the school program isolates the child from his classmates, making it very vulnerable to the psychic plane.
6. Have your computer and the Internet.technology have made it possible to unite the whole world, narrowing it down to a computer monitor, but it's bad impact on young people's ability to communicate.Children narrows the range of interests, they are not able to discuss anything with their peers, in addition, as far as he is "pumped" his character or how many "bots" he "soaked" yesterday.Children become shy in person, they are hard to find words, because the computer is so easy to hide behind a pair of emoticons.At the same time the only form of communication they have a chat in the chat.
depression in a child can develop as a result of exposure to acute or chronic stress (death or serious illness of loved ones, family breakdown, quarrel with close friends, conflicts with peers, etc.), but can start it is due to some apparent reason onbackground of complete physical and social well-being, which are generally associated with impairment of the normal biochemical processes in the brain.There are the so-called seasonal depression, the occurrence of which is associated with a particular sensitivity to climatic conditions (often seen in children undergoing hypoxia, received various injuries in childbirth).
symptoms of depression in child
Depression is subject to the greatest degree adolescence.There are early (12-13 years), medium (13-16 years) and late (over 16 years) depression.
Depression manifests the classic triad of symptoms: depressed mood, reduced mobility and reduced thinking.
mood during the day Decrease in depression uneven.Most often in the morning the mood is more upbeat, children willingly go to school.During the day, the mood is gradually reduced, depressed mood peak in the evening.Children are not interested in anything, may be concerned about the headache, in rare cases, may increase the body temperature.Children complain that they have all the bad that they have constant problems at school, conflicts with teachers and students.No progress is not encouraging them, they always see only the negative side, even in the good things.
addition to depressed mood occur so-called flash very good mood.Children jokes, having fun, however, such a good mood does not last long (from a few minutes to an hour), and then replaced again depressed mood.
Reduced mobility manifested in the reluctance to move any children constantly lie or sit in the same pose, often hunched.Physical work does not cause them any interest.
thought process in children is slowed down, it is a quiet, slow.Children hardly pick up the necessary words, for they become problematic to build the associative array (such as a wedding, bride-veil and white dress).Questions children answer after a pause, often only a word or a nod of the head.There is a loop on one thought, often with a negative tinge: nobody loves me, my bad, I do not get, all I try to do something bad.
Children appetite decreases, they refuse to eat, and sometimes can not eat for several days.Sleeping little worried about insomnia, as cycling on the same thought process interferes with sleep.Sleep in children shallow, restless, does not allow the body to relax fully.
Suicidal thoughts do not arise immediately, often for their occurrence requires a long period of illness (from a year or more).One thought about suicide is not limited.Children invent a plan of action, think of life care options.This course is the most dangerous disease variant, as can easily be fatal.
addition to psychological disorders are very often somatic symptoms.Such children often seek medical help with complaints of general malaise, weakness, chest pain, heart, stomach, headache, possible fever, which is often regarded as persistent (circulating) infection in the body.
Due to the presence of psycho-emotional disorders, children begin to fall behind in school, lost interest in any entertainment, children are no longer engaged in a hobby, even though before that they paid him all the time.
As mentioned earlier, during the long period of illness and it can flow over the years.Therefore, if the child lives in a family with parents notice symptoms quite easily.Another thing, if the child lives in a dormitory.Happy classmates see it normal, unchanged since the deterioration usually occurs in the evening, and in the evening the child is often alone in a dorm room, where no one sees.For the administration of such a child is of no interest, since it does not violate the order.
What parents need to pay attention?
The first step is to talk with your child interested in his life, problems at school.It is necessary to pay attention to the intonation, there are plans for the future, an optimistic view of the future.Pay attention to the presence of your child's friends, interested in what he was doing after school.Pay attention to how much time the child spends, not doing any chores.Some children - it is laziness, but even the most lazy child can be forced to do something, bribe him, the child is depressed nothing is not interested in, nor gifts, nor encouraging.
insularity and lack of friends can sometimes be observed in masturbation when children try to be alone, to avoid prying eyes.Frequent mood swings can occur when taking baby drugs.In this case, turning on itself and other signs of addiction: preference for wearing a long-sleeved, photophobia, irritability, not the ability to focus on a single class (restlessness), the discovery of syringes, needles, bags incomprehensible.
child Survey depression
To clarify the diagnosis requires a mandatory consultation psychiatrist.Schools must have psychologists who have seen children dynamically, and to which, if necessary, children can turn to for advice.You need to visit a psychologist for children at risk for the development of depression, regardless of the state.This will help avoid the development of severe symptoms, and allow the children to find a companion with whom you can share secrets and get advice.
Treatment of children with depression
In severe cases, when the child expresses suicidal oil, especially when he has a concrete plan for the care of life, treatment should be carried out only in a hospital, in the border state of separation.
When milder forms of the disease treatment can be done at home.The child throughout the course of treatment should be to live a normal life: to go to school, do housework, go to the store to shop.
In pediatric practice is very well-proven drug Adaptol.This drug is very well tolerated, has no side effects, does not cause drowsiness.The drug normalizes sleep, improves mood, increases resistance to psycho-emotional stress.Take the drug must be in a dosage of 300 mg 1 tablet 3 times a day.Treatment duration from 2 weeks to a month.When symptomatic, adaptol must be taken at a dose of 500 mg 2-3 times a day for 3 weeks, and then go to the dosage of 300 mg, and still continue to receive 1 month.This drug is in addition to the psycho-emotional symptoms, as well relieves somatic symptoms of depression: the pain goes away, normal temperature.Application Adaptol with frequent headaches, pain in the heart, frequent fever, is one way to accurate diagnosis and isolate children from the group of patients with depression.
As an outpatient basis may be used such a drug as tenoten.Tenoten is a homeopathic drug that blocks certain brain proteins.Well it reduces anxiety, improves sleep, normalizes appetite.The drug helps to improve concentration, memory normalization.
In severe cases, antidepressants are used: amitriptyline, pirazidol, azafen.These drugs should only be used under medical supervision, and it is desirable only in a hospital.
but no treatment of depression in children is not complete without a positive change in his family, parents need to take a "real baby", his needs and desires instead of their own expectations, instead of "a child of their dreams."When conducting psychotherapy working to strengthen the child's self-esteem, the development of his ability to express their feelings, share them, step by step to cope with problems and to constructively influence the situation.
prevention of depression in children
To prevent the development of depression in children is necessary to organize psychological assistance in schools and colleges, children need to explain the need to visit a psychologist with problems.It is necessary to improve the climate in the family, to try to deal with what some cases the whole family (picnics, hiking in the woods, sports games).Be interested in your child's life and show how much interested in what he is interested for you.Try to know your child's friends, however, you need it to be unobtrusive, everything should be in the form of conversation, when a child tells you everything himself.Pay attention to the child's behavior, notice all the new preferences in your child.
Self child will not be able to get out of the doldrums , so the task of the parents in time to pay attention to the change in the person of the child and seek medical advice.
child often has to be on the air, to be active in daylight and relax in complete darkness.This has a positive effect on the entire body, normalize biorhythms.
Doctor pediatrician Litashov MV