Antisocial personality disorder - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
dissocial personality disorder - one of the most controversial categories in the clinical field.Some people argue that this is just psevdoklinicheskoe name for scams and other criminal elements.Others believe that this is a serious mental disorder that clinicians need to better understand and treat more effectively.The main anomaly, which unites this group of psychopathic personalities, considered to be the underdevelopment of higher moral sentiments.
allocation of this type of personality disorder carried out on the basis of social criteria, the main one being the failure to follow the prevailing social norms, to live in harmony with the law.
Sociopaths indifferent to social standards;this lovers of strong sensations, impulsive, lacking a sense of responsibility, despite many penalties and punishments they can not learn from the negative experiences.
allocation of this type of personality disorder , if we approach the problem from a clinical point, it is to a large extent arbitrary.In domestic
Milestones antisocial personality disorder
Psychopathic personality, united in this group, since the early years characterized by a lack of any spiritual interests, immorality, selfishness, impulsiveness.They are stubborn, quarrelsome, deceitful, cruel - bullying younger, torturing animals, they soon formed the opposition to their parents, and sometimes open hostility towards others.In the early school and adolescence sociopaths exhibit negative behaviors, such as skip training sessions, running away from home, commit violence, damage property and organize arson.In dealing with people they are distinguished by irascibility, reaching sometimes up rage and anger.At school they are swearing, instigate fights;before reaching adulthood, they start stealing, running away from home, wander.Systematic production activities for them intolerable.Their track record is replete with frequent absenteeism and workplace changes.Moreover, the dismissal, as a rule, the future employment is not planned.In the absence of spiritual motives, affections, attention for others, they neglect the tradition, ignoring social, moral and legal norms, and in flagrant violation of family life.Over time, sociopaths are in prison.Many people with this disorder, criminal behavior is on the decline after 40 years;Some, however, continue to deal with all his life to criminal activity.
Symptoms dissocial personality disorder
Complacency, a strong belief in the correctness combined with their lack of critical evaluation of their actions.Any penalty or a remark seen as a manifestation of injustice.Usually these people casually refer to money.In a drunken state, they become even more evil, conflict, fighting, smashing everything around.Their whole life - is a chain of continuous conflicts with the public order from counterfeit securities, thefts and robberies to brutal acts of violence.At the same time they are guided not only selfish interests, but also the desire to annoy, offend others.Usually they are able to achieve their own benefit at the expense of others.They are devoid of compassion, shame, honor, remorse, conscience.Their main feature is the heartlessness.Apart from disorders caused by the use of narcotic drugs is a personality disorder is most closely connected with the criminal behavior of adults.
The most typical "nuclear" cases of this group with pronounced emotional changes always require differential diagnosis with an endogenous process (schizofreniey), arose early moral stupidity is often evidence of prior attacks or slowly developing schizophrenia geboidnymi manifestations or chronic mania.
reasons for antisocial personality disorder
The explanation of antisocial personality disorder are psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and biological theory.
- psychodynamic theorists suggest that this disorder, like many other personality disorders, starting with the lack of parental love in infancy, and this leads to a lack of general trust in people.Children who found antisocial personality disorder respond to similar early experiences of emotional alienation and try to establish contact with others only by force and destructive.In support of psychodynamic theory, researchers are finding that people with this disorder are more likely than others faced in their childhood stress, in particular, in such forms as family poverty, family violence and parental quarrel or divorce.Many of them also brought up by parents who themselves suffered from antisocial personality disorder.There is no doubt that having such a parent, a person could lose faith in other people.
- Many theorists, behaviorists suggest that antisocial symptoms could be acquired through imitation, or imitation.As evidence, they also indicate a greater prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among parents of people with this disorder.
- Other behaviorists believe that some parents instill in their children inadvertently antisocial behavior, regularly reinforcing aggressive behavior of the child.For example, when a child misbehaves or respond with violence to parental requests or requirements, parents can give in to him, to restore peaceful relations.Unintentionally, they can vaccinate a child stubborn, and perhaps even cruelty.
- cognitive theorists believe the direction that people with antisocial personality disorder adhere to plants that do not take into account the importance of the needs of others.People with this disorder is really difficult to take into account the point of view different from their own.
- Finally, a number of studies suggest that antisocial disorder personality can play an important role biological factors.Studies show that people with this disorder are often less anxious than others.In turn, they may lack the element, which is key in the process of learning.This may explain why it is so difficult to learn from their mistakes and to capture the emotional reactions of others.Several studies have shown that subjects with antisocial personality disorder are less able than the subjects in the control group, to decide, laboratory tasks, such as finding a way out of the maze, where are the key underpinnings of punishment, for example, a certain shock effect, or a fine.When experimenters make punishment more pronounced or cause subjects to pay attention to them, learning improves.However, left to themselves, the subjects with this disorder do not respond to punishment too.Perhaps the negative events simply do not cause these individuals such anxiety as other people.Researchers, biologists found that subjects with this disorder often react to a warning or expectation of low stress brain stimulation, for example, slow arousal of the autonomic nervous system and the low-frequency wave EEG.Due to the low excitation of these people can be difficult to catch threatening or emotional situation, and such situations may have little effect on them.It is also possible that low physiological arousal makes people with this personality disorder to take risks and seek adventure.The antisocial activities may attract them, precisely because it satisfies a need for more excitement.In favor of this idea is the fact that antisocial personality disorder, as we have seen it before, often accompanied by a behavior characterized by the search for thrills.
Diagnostics dissocial personality disorder
personality disorders, usually attracts attention gross disparity between behavior and the prevailing social norms characterized by the following:
- callous indifference to the feelings of others;
- gross and persistent attitude of irresponsibility and disregard for social rules and obligations;
- inability to maintain relationships in the absence of difficulties in their establishment;
- very low frustration tolerance, and low threshold discharge of aggression, including violence;
- inability to experience guilt and to benefit from the experience of life, particularly punishment;
- pronounced tendency to blame others, or to put forward plausible explanation for his behavior, which leads the subject into conflict with society.
to an optional feature can be a constant irritability.In childhood and adolescence may be a confirmation of the diagnosis of conduct disorder, although it is not necessary.
for this disorder is recommended to take into account the ratio of the regional cultural norms and social conditions for the definition of rules and responsibilities, which are ignored by the patient.
- sociopathic disorder;
- sociopathic personality;
- immoral person;
- antisocial personality;
- antisocial personality;
- psychopathic personality disorder.
- behavioral disorders (F91.h);
- emotionally unstable personality disorder (F60.3-).
Treatment of antisocial personality disorder
Treatment undergoes approximately one third of all people with this disorder, but none of the treatments is not, apparently, effective.Most are forced to be treated by their employers, educational institutions and law enforcement agencies, or they get in a field of view of physicians in connection with some other disorder.
Some therapists cognitive-behavioral direction trying to get clients with antisocial personality disorder to reflect on moral issues and the needs of other people
Programme "to combat savagery" focused on what to give the man confidence, raise self-esteem and make more faithfulthe interests of the group.Some individuals, appear to benefit from such programs.However, as a rule, most of the current therapeutic approach has little effect on people with antisocial personality disorder, or even no effect on them.