Addiction - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Since ancient times, humanity is familiar with the substance.They are used in medical (such as painkillers, sleeping pills or stimulating), and for ritual purposes - using mescaline and psilocybin, for example, priests in South America changed their mental state and make predictions.Also, for a long time it began and drug abuse.With the extent of drug abuse are increasing every year, synthesized the new more aggressive drugs, and more and more young people (and this pernicious passion susceptible, mainly, it is the young people) instead of creating a successful career, a possible happy home life, active and healthy recreation roll down to the bottom.We can say that drug addiction is not so much medical as social problem with a long history and has not yet been solved.
Doctors characterize addiction as a disease that occurs as a result of the systematic abuse of different drugs.Mandatory signs of addiction is an addiction patient to intoxication, which enables the use of the drug, other than a healthy p
cause of addiction is considered to be the use of the drug, ie,substances capable of causing painful desire and the desire to increase the dose received.But the question of why not all people taking drugs, and furthermore, why are not all people who use ever drugs become addicts, remains open.There are opinions that the formation of addiction, you must have certain personality traits, and to confirm that there is evidence of predisposition to addiction patients with psychopathic traits, and mentally ill people.Also, there is evidence more likely to develop dependence in people that grew in a hostile family environment.Trends play an important role in the spread of drug addiction.There is evidence of transmission of inherited tendency toward the disease.
Addiction How to suspect drug use?When you want to sound the alarm and contact a specialist?These issues concern many parents whose children come into adolescence time.Depending on taking the drug, the patient's appearance and behavior may be different.
most popular among young people are drugs based on cannabis .This type of addiction is called hashishism.When used drugs cannabis behavior drastically changes.The patient feels a sense of excitement from the revival of external images, it increases the appetite, sex drive, is tinnitus.Possible aggressive actions.Sometimes, on the contrary, there drowsiness, apathy.With long-term use of cannabis growing indifference to the environment, passivity, reduced intelligence.Lost morality, conscience, shame, which often entails wrongful actions of the patient.
Another "trendy" and popular among the youth drug - cocaine .This plant-based drugs, but he learned to synthesize.Artificially produced cocaine analogue called « crack ».It has a toxic effect on the body.The person abusing cocaine, usually pale, exhausted, irritable.His pupils in a state of "high" expanded, he often coughs, pulse speeded up, blood pressure is raised.He is often tormented by insomnia, depression.Prolonged abuse develop specific hallucinations - the man seems that under his skin crawl a lot of insects.It is also possible occurrence of seizures.
abuse often occurs psychostimulants - this kind of drug abuse has been especially popular in our country in the late 80s.last century.Typically, addicts use ephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine.In a state of intoxication stimulants observed dilated pupils, irritability, agitation, abnormal behavior.There are hallucinations, delusions.After intoxication there is a feeling of weakness, lethargy, depression.The systematic use of reduced appetite, often urinary retention.Man exhausted physically, looks haggard: sunken eyes with a feverish luster, pale skin with a grayish tinge, thinness.
not less common and dependence on hallucinogenic drugs.It ecstasy, LSD, PCP ( «angel dust" in the slang of addicts).When these drugs intoxication observed euphoria, vivid hallucinations, elevated mood.After intoxication possible amnesia (people partially forget their experiences).Chronic administration of hallucinogens is increasing distraction, lost control of the function of behavior.Externally addicts look pale, shaking their hands, there is increased sweating, decreased vision frequently.The peculiarity of this kind of addiction is the almost complete absence of "breaking."
most serious view of drug abuse is the abuse of opiates.The best known drugs of this group - heroin, morphine, codeine and synthetic drug methadone .Opiates are used in medicine to treat coughs (codeine) and diarrhea (Imodium), as well as for pain (promedol, tramadol).After receiving opiates appears benign grezopodobnoe state.The man relaxed, slowed down.With long-term use of opioids can occur contrary tide of forces after the administration of the drug.Pupils are narrow, pale skin and dry, often have constipation.Blood pressure is reduced in these addicts, heart rate slowed.When drug use in this group is often the case respiratory depression, which along with an overdose is a common cause of death of patients.Especially hard "breaking" with this kind of addiction - expressed wriggle body aches, fever, tormented patient anxiety, insomnia.While "breaking" the probability of exhaustion and dehydration, becausedecreased appetite, while attempting to take food or a drink of water in the stomach starts cramping.View heroin addict is specific: the patient looks older than his years, exhausted, pale skin jaundiced, scaly.The teeth affected by caries, tooth loss characteristic even in young drug addicts.Hair also drop out, become brittle, dull.Patients are false, indifferent, without moral and ethical principles.
high probability of drug use if:
1. There are traces of injections, which can not be explained by medical manipulations, often inflamed becauseaddicts usually do not observe the proper technique for intravenous administration.
2. The personal belongings found a cigarette (such as "White Sea Canal"), syringes (usually insulin), tourniquets for intravenous injection, strange pieces of paper, reminiscent of the brand pills of unknown origin, the ampoule with an unknown substance, powders.The cigarettes are used for smoking drugs from cannabis, also for this purpose can be used special devices resembling a small smoking pipe.
syringes and tourniquets used for intravenous administration of drugs (mostly heroin).
LSD sold as "marks" - paper plate on which a layer of deposited drug.This mark is placed under the tongue, where a high concentration of blood vessels and thus the drug is rapidly absorbed.
Hallucinogenic substances are usually used in the form of tablets and powders.Cocaine and heroin are well white powdered substance.
cannabis preparations look like shredded plant parts or oily balls also explicitly plant.
3. Human behavior has changed: there aggression, inappropriate cheerfulness, or vice versa, depressed, gloomy mood, lethargy.There are new friends, lost former interests.Suffers study, work, disintegrating family relationships.
4. There are health problems: frequent infections, fatigue, weight loss, insomnia, high blood pressure surges, violations chair, constant runny nose.
If you have these symptoms, access to a doctor should not be delayed!In the case when it comes to just about health problems, you first need to visit a therapist.But if there is a disruption in behavior or found drugs or devices for their application - it is desirable to come to the appointment with the psychiatrist-narcologist.
Survey for suspected drug abuse.
When contacting a physician will be assigned tests, allowing the doctor to draw conclusions about the overall health of the patient.It's blood, urine, electrocardiogram, ultrasound of internal organs (liver, thyroid), X-ray or a chest X-ray light.Turning directly to the psychiatrist-narcologist still desirable to have at hand the data from these surveys and physician report.This will help a specialist to choose the most optimal treatment strategy based on the physical condition of the patient.You also need to donate blood for common infections with drug addiction - hepatitis, HIV, syphilis.Consultation ENT doctor will reveal thinning of the nasal septum, which often occurs with drug use through the nose.
the presence of at least one case of convulsive seizure is necessary to visit a neurologist and an EEG done, and possibly other tests prescribed by a doctor (CT, MRI).The psychiatrist, the psychiatrist may recommend an additional psychological consultation to identify the state of intelligence, memory, determining characteristics of the patient's personality.To determine the last dose of the drug, there are special time urine, blood, sometimes use the introduction of drug-drug antagonists (naltrexone) that do not cause reactions in a healthy person and a drug addict cause the "break-up".
Treatment addict - a long, multi-step process, and the success of treatment depends not only on modern drugs, but also on the patient's desire to get rid of the addiction and co-operation with your doctor.Usually inpatient treatment becausea necessary condition is to stop receiving the drug, and to do it as an outpatient procedure the patient is usually not possible.In addition, arises when "breaking" the abolition of the drug in the hospital transferred more easily, thanks to treatment.
use the dropper with vitamins (B complex, C, PP), reinforcing agents (glucose, nootropil), by means of restoring fluid and electrolyte balance in the body (sodium chloride, potassium, magnesium) to remove the abstinence syndrome.Additionally, depending on the "withdrawal" symptoms can be used analgesics (analgin, Tramal), hypnotics (radedorm, imovan, phenobarbital), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine) used in severe anxiety tranquilizers (elenium, diazepam, Phenazepamum).When excitation is used antipsychotics (Tisercinum, etaperazin, neuleptil, tiapridal).If you have a low mood - prescribed antidepressants (Paxil, Heptral, koaksil, pirazidol).To improve the general condition the patient is given essentiale (normalizes the function of the liver), cardiovascular drugs (Enap, Inderal and others).
After the relief of withdrawal symptoms begin fighting psychic dependence on the drug.Here, the main component of treatment is psychotherapy.It can be a group (for example, narcotics anonymous meetings of clubs, conditioned reflex therapy) and individual (auditory training, hypnosis).
The third step in the treatment of addiction is to receive maintenance therapy.This is outside of the hospital.It is necessary to attend drug abuse clinic and follow the recommendations of the attending physician.At this stage, for the prevention of disruption possible drug use drugs antagonists (naltrexone).If the intake of an antagonist of the patient tolerate drug use, the euphoria he did not get, and physical condition will deteriorate.Thus, the main motive disappears drug use - getting "high".
During treatment, people need to know to give all possible support to the patient.This does not mean that they have to take on his problems.It is advisable to protect the addict from meeting friends, continuing drug use, if possible, change the environment completely.It would be good to follow the intake of medicines, visits to the doctor.It does everything necessary to maintain the patient's desire for useful activity, to strengthen his faith in himself.Remarkably, if the patient will be able to find something to do for the soul - whether work or hobbies.
Nutrition for addiction
should also be said about the power of drug addicts.Since these patients are often depleted, preference should be given enough high-calorie foods, but it is necessary that she did not give an unnecessary burden on the gastrointestinal tract and liver.It is not advisable to overload the food spices, fats.Even though depletion of the patient, we should not encourage overeating.In general, it is sufficient follow the basic principles of healthy eating.If there is a long experience of addiction and the patient is emaciated, and his organs in poor condition, diet is better to discuss with a specialist (internist, gastroenterologist, nutritionist).
independently make an attempt to diagnose a drug addiction, and, moreover, to be treated, it is extremely dangerous.The patient's behavior in certain mental diseases can be mistaken for a drug addict behaviors (eg, schizophrenia may change the social circle and interests, appear closed).In addition, addiction can only be a concomitant symptom in diseases such as schizoaffective disorder, depression, psychopathy, and many others.In this case, treatment is paramount underlying problem.Physical exhaustion and other physical symptoms may not necessarily be the result of drug use.Perhaps the reason is a serious illness or infection.So, properly qualify the patient only by a specialist.In addition, a drug used for the treatment of addiction, it is hardly possible to buy without a prescription.If only traditional medicine, such as calming herbs (valerian, yarrow, Leonurus) but, unfortunately, give little effect in addiction.In addition to the basic treatment in consultation with your doctor may use these drugs, but in the best case will take place only a placebo effect.
Rehabilitation after treatment
addiction Very important is the rehabilitation of drug addicts.It plays a major role not physician intervention and work with psychologists, social workers, peer communication, which have a positive experience in dealing with drug addiction.The greatest effect is to be expected from the rehabilitation program, which is held in a special center.There the patient has the opportunity to engage in work therapy, attend sessions with a psychologist, to form a new circle of friends.The duration of a truly effective rehabilitation programs is unlikely to be less than 1.5 years.Short-term programs for 1.5-2 months, can benefit only if further maintenance therapy receive regular supervision and drug treatment in the clinic.
Neglecting the treatment of drug abuse problem is compounded exponentially and leads to serious consequences.Decomposed human personality - disappear moral and ethical framework, there is pathological lying, cynicism, indifference to loved ones.Reduced intelligence, memory, up to dementia.
Physically, the body also suffers greatly: depleted vital organs, reduced immunity, which leads to a tendency to infectious diseases and more heavy for them.Among drug users frequent suicide, they often fall into the crime reports as criminals or their victims.
Psychiatrist Bochkareva OS