Postpartum Depression - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Mental Disorders

At the end of pregnancy, during childbirth expectant mother becomes passive, loses control of the situation, at the same time a feeling of disturbing strangeness, and some women carry it bad.

P ozhdenie child causes a woman to identify themselves with their parents to find out how they fulfill their parental functions.During the period of maternity occurs reactivation of conflict and trauma, deficient in childhood and adolescence.

from the normal time of depression that occurs in many women in the early days after birth, postpartum depression is more depth, duration, and impaired ability to do anything.In the future, there is a gradual fading of the main symptoms and a tendency to chronic course, because the disease is not recognized and does not consider it necessary to treat neither the mother nor her surroundings, because the birth of a child, by definition, should be a happy event.However, about 20% of women, even a year after the birth of the child is still in the doldrums.

After birth, 10-15% o

f women experience a typical depressive episode, but only 3% of this diagnosis is made and treatment is carried out.Painting disorder characterized by the same symptoms as major depression.Some scientists even believe postpartum depression is only one of the variants of the clinical picture of major depressive disorder.

Symptoms of postpartum depression

During inspection mother often found following symptoms of depression: anxiety (which is accompanied by palpitations, headache, a feeling of panic, obsessive acts);subjective feeling of sorrow and sadness;lack of strength;tearfulness;insomnia;appetite disorders, depressed mood, feelings of loneliness, the idea of ​​self-deprecation.Periodically repeated theme of remorse, which is reflected in the perception of himself as a bad mother, and in the feeling of shame.

One of the typical symptoms of postpartum depression - a complete unwillingness to mothers to seek help.This can be explained by a deep sense of guilt that they feel when faced with the difficulties associated with childcare.Many mothers expect the "mother love", they will be covered after the birth, decides problems of adaptation to the child, while the formation of this connection depends on the long-term (several months) of mutual learning.Mothers frustrated appears, which may cause feelings of guilt, which is the foundation of depression.In addition, some mothers find that they alone are responsible for a child.Daily care require them to physical and mental strength and cause a feeling of helplessness, the growing isolation.

most significant is the incidence of worsening sentiment in the mother during the period between the third and ninth month after giving birth.

Three months after his birth, the following symptoms are recorded more often: irritability, depressed mood, and anxiety.Symptoms at 3, 9 and 15 months is similar.A string of symptoms of depression is accompanied by a grim vision of the future and an inability to carry out daily activities.

Schematically, the two groups of mothers can be identified:

  • at first were either conflictual relationship with her own mother, or they felt the lack of maternal feelings.They find it difficult to accept some aspects of sexuality and motherhood;
  • second is difficult to get rid of unpleasant experiences, or they believe that they can not control life events;often these women a history of depression transferred.

factors of postpartum depression

huge role played by the social, psychological, interpersonal, and biological factors.

  • low socio-economic status,
  • transferred last depression or depression in any of the family members,
  • alcoholism,
  • weak support from family,
  • severe during pregnancy
  • severity of depression during pregnancy;
  • negative life events.
  • age over 40 years,
  • belonging to the ethnic groups of African descent,
  • lack of vocational training,
  • insufficient spouse Activity,
  • complete cessation of work before delivery,
  • early cessation of work in the first or second trimester of pregnancy,

as factors hindering the development of severe depressive symptoms are the following:

  • gipertimnye mother;
  • Emotiveness mother;
  • high internality in the field of family and interpersonal relationships.

forecast postpartum depression

  1. Given that in most cases, postpartum depression is not detected and not treated there is a risk of transition to a chronic form of the disease.
  2. mother's depression affects the status and development of the child.Children suffer because mom is not interested in interacting with them, as well as a reaction to any of their manifestation.Children at an early age in particular need of bodily contact "skin to skin" care, communication.Mother's Depression adversely affects the child's development, especially in the sense of security, internal self-defense mechanism, concentration, speech development.Also, according to some researchers, the mother's depression seriously affects family relationships, which may also have a negative impact on the child.

should be noted that emotional disorders, personality development, self-esteem in a child is closely linked to the mother's condition.Therefore, it is often the children of mothers who have experienced postpartum depression, have difficulties in expressing feelings and a tendency to depression, increased anxiety.

primarily in children suffering emotional sphere.Thus, a number of studies (Baz LL, 1999) shows that children of mothers with postpartum depression show less positive emotions, they have to at least expressed interest in people and things.They do not synchronize their behavior with their mothers to the extent that it makes babies from mothers nedepressivnyh and express less dissatisfaction with the mother-to-room.Moreover, infants were unhappy intercourse with a depressive mother and the "left" him.Such a "depressive behavior" manifested in the interaction with outsiders adults who do not suffer from depression.

  1. In some cases, postpartum depression can turn into more serious disorder - postpartum psychosis.This disease occurs in 1-2 out of 1000 pregnant women.Among the symptoms - hallucinations, delusions, and suicidal thoughts.Women with postpartum psychosis require immediate medical attention, and usually in the hospital room.

Beck Depression Scale


This questionnaire consists of 21 groups of statements.Read it carefully and select the number (O, 1, 2 or 3) statements best reflects your state of health in the last week, including today.If you seem to be more appropriate claims in the group, circle each one.Make sure you read all the statements in each group before making a choice.


  • 0 I do not feel upset, sad.
  • 1 I'm upset.
  • 2 I'm always upset and can not be disconnected from it.
  • 3 I am so upset and unhappy that I can not stand it.


  • 0 I'm not worried about my future.
  • 1 I feel puzzled future.
  • 2 I feel I have nothing to expect in the future.
  • 3 My future is hopeless, and nothing can change for the better.


  • 0 I do not feel like a failure.
  • 1 I feel that suffered more setbacks than other people.
  • 2 When I look back on my life, I see there is a lot of failures.
  • 3 I feel that as a person I - complete loser.


  • 0 I get as much satisfaction out of life as before.
  • 1 I do not get as much satisfaction out of life as before.
  • 2 I do not get satisfaction from anything.
  • 3 I am not fully satisfied with life.and I'm still tired.


  • 0 I do not feel guilty about anything.
  • 1 Quite often, I feel guilty.
  • 2 Most of the time I feel guilty.
  • 3 I always feel a sense of guilt.


  • 0 I do not feel I can be punished for anything.
  • 1 I feel I may be punished.
  • 2 I expect to be able to be punished.
  • 3 I feel already punished.


  • 0 I'm not disappointed in myself.
  • 1 I was disappointed in myself.
  • 2 I am disgusted with myself.
  • 3 I hate myself.


  • 0 I know I'm no worse than others.
  • 1 I am critical of myself for the mistakes and weaknesses.
  • 2 I blame myself all the time for his actions.
  • 3 I blame myself for everything bad that happens.


  • 0 I never thought of suicide.
  • 1 thoughts come to me to kill myself, but I'm not going to carry them out.
  • 2 I would like to commit suicide
  • 3 I would kill myself if I had the chance.


  • 0 I do not cry any more than usual.
  • 1 Now I cry more often than before.
  • 2 Now I cry all the time.
  • 3 Before I could cry, but now I can not, even if I want to.


  • 0 Now I'm no more irritable than usual.
  • 1 I get irritated more easily than before.
  • 2 Now I constantly feel annoyed.
  • 3 I have become indifferent to the things that used to irritate me.


  • 0 I have not lost interest in other people.
  • 1 I'm less interested in other people than in the past.
  • 2 I almost lost interest in other people.
  • 3 I have lost interest in other people.


  • 0 I put off making decisions sometimes, as in the past.
  • 1 I more often than before, put off making a decision.
  • 2 I find it difficult to make decisions than before.
  • 3 I can not make decisions.


  • 0 I do not feel that I look worse than usual.
  • 1 I am worried that I look old and unattractive.
  • 2 I know that there were significant changes in my appearance that make me look unattractive.
  • 3 I know I look ugly.


  • 0 I can work just as well as before.
  • 1 I need to make an extra effort to start doing something.
  • 2 I can hardly force myself to do anything.
  • 3 I absolutely can not perform any work.


  • 0 I sleep just as well as before.
  • 1 Now I sleep worse than before.
  • 2 I wake up 1-2 hours earlier, and I find it difficult to fall asleep again.
  • 3 I wake up several hours earlier than usual and can not go to sleep.


  • 0 I do not get tired more than usual.
  • 1 Now I get tired more easily than ever before.
  • 2 I get tired from almost everything I do.
  • 3 I can not do anything because of fatigue.


  • 0 My appetite is no worse than usual.
  • 1 My appetite became worse than before.
  • 2 My appetite is now much worse.
  • 3 I have no appetite at all.


  • 0 Lately I have not lost weight or weight loss was negligible.
  • 1 Recently, I lost more than 2 kg.
  • 2 I have lost more than 5 kg.
  • 3 I have lost more than 7 Kr.


  • 0 I'm worried about your health any more than usual.
  • 1 I worried about my physical health problems, such as pain, indigestion, constipation and so on.
  • 2 I am very worried about his physical condition, and I find it hard to think about anything else.
  • 3 I am so worried about my physical condition, that nothing else can not think.


  • 0 Recently, I noticed changes in my interest in sex.
  • 1 I take less sex problems than before.
  • 2 Now I am much less interested in sexual problems than before.
  • 3 I have lost interest in sex.

For answers charged 0 0 points 1 point 1, 2 - 3 points, 3 - 4 points.

count the total number of points (in the case if you choose not one but several claims, they also considered).


0-9 - the absence of depressive symptoms.

10-15 - mild depression (subdepression).

16-19 - moderate depression.

20-29 - severe depression (moderate severity).

30-63 - severe depression.

Treatment of postpartum depression

You should always consult a doctor if the symptoms of postpartum depression:

- do not disappear in two weeks;
- your condition worsens;
- you find it difficult to care for a child;
- you think about harming yourself or your baby.

Early treatment of postpartum depression will help speed your recovery.If you think that you begin to develop postpartum psychosis, call your doctor.Do not wait and hope for improvement in your condition.Postpartum psychosis can cause life-threatening consequences.Usually there is no definitive causes of postpartum depression, because for such a state can serve as any physical, emotional, lifestyle factors can all play a role in its fast development.

Mild depression usually disappears on its own within a few days to two to three weeks.But at the same time, try to get as much time to rest as soon as you can.Accept help from family and friends.Connect with other moms.It can seize your emotional state, you can get them to support you as needed.Do not drink alcohol that can enhance the mood swings worse, as well as a negative impact on your baby while breastfeeding.

not interfere counseling therapist.You can find effective ways to cope with their symptoms and solve the issues you care about.Such consultation is also useful for therapy or family relations.

In severe and severe depression need to see a psychiatrist or neurologist.Treatment is carried out with antidepressants and hormonal preparations, but be aware that breast-feeding because of the treatment may have to be canceled.

Postpartum psychosis is the most severe stage of depression requires immediate treatment and often in the hospital, with the use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, sedatives, and electroconvulsive therapy.The child, naturally, at the time will have to part with her mother.The realization of such a perspective sometimes helps to overcome postpartum depression themselves.

Maintain a healthy and active lifestyle.Turn exercise, do morning exercises, go for a walk with the baby every day.Eat healthy food and nekalloriynuyu and in no case do not drink alcohol.Do not exert pressure on myself.Forget some of your expectations of an ideal family and engaged in what you can and leave the rest.Ask for help from your relatives or friends when necessary.Find time for yourself also.When you feel that the world is spinning around you, in the eyes of the dark, take some time to relax.Get dressed, leave the house and visit a friend or follow any instructions.Avoid loneliness and isolation.Tell your partner, family or friends about how you feel.Ask other mothers about their experiences and do not forget that the best way to take care of your baby is to take care of yourself.