narcissism syndrome ( narcissistic personality disorder ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
narcissism (narcissistic personality disorder or narcissistic syndrome) - a disorder associated with impaired self-esteem of man toward complacency.Pathological (painful violations) self-love is expressed in the need for increased attention to his own person.Patients show a commitment to excellence, do not control their ambitions, striving for physical attractiveness, power and wealth, it is the manner in behavior, etc.Their value system is very infantile.Some people, characterized by a high level of intelligence, can use it as a basis for the intellectual narcissism.
all suffering from narcissism, trying to protect themselves from the potential feelings of envy for other people, so there is no interest in their work and activities, and develop contempt for others.Patients often vague in their relations, some individuals may perceive as idols, and then, as enemies or fools.Consequently, the narcissist is not able to empathize with others or be emotional in relationships, too addicted to praise, often g
People affected by the disease, on the one hand, have a sense of superiority over all, and on the other - are perceived by others as arrogant, employment themselves.One of the characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder - absence of empathy.Despite the fact that patients say they feel and think about the other, but in reality they do not show empathy and compassion for people.It is believed that lack of empathy (empathy, emotional experience to another) in patients associated with the violation of their brain structures.
mood changes in patients cause unusual factors, not like at all.Mood swings are often caused by unsuccessful attempts to gain recognition from others.Dominated by the state of emptiness or loneliness, and life is perceived as a destination.Narcissus is not characteristic of remorse, sadness or understanding of his mental state.Usually these people self-regulated by a sense of shame, not guilt.These patients do not show much interest in moral values, aesthetic or intellectual.Their value systems are the "children" and the need to protect their pride and self-esteem.
narissizma reasons or causes of narcissism?
Anatomical causes narcissism
Investigating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients suffering from narcissistic personality disorder, scientists have revealed thickening of the cortex, the outer shell and a modification of the nerve cells in the brain.It turned out that these deviations are precisely in that part of the brain that is responsible for the feeling of compassion.
Scientists have shown that a sense of empathy (compassion, empathy) depends on the volume of gray matter, and in patients with narcissism its amount is much less than that of healthy people.This served as the basis for further study of brain functioning.
Causes of childhood
- Narcissism - self-centered behavior, which is caused by low self-esteem.Sometimes these standards are set by other people, such as parents, resulting in the development of protective mechanisms, denial and distortion of the facts, the splitting of the personality.
- Improper education of children, such as the absence of constraints, permissiveness, is considered one of the main causes of the syndrome.Parents who are overly praised, idealize and spoil the child, thereby contributing to the development of narcissism.
- lack of discipline on what the child can and can not do.
- not form healthy self-esteem, if only in the interests of the parents.
- Narcissistic personality disorder is developed to make up for the lack of support and encouragement of parents.
Narcissistic traits are quite common in adolescence, but that does not necessarily mean that the child will be a narcissist.
Psychologists believe that the disease is caused by a combination of factors that include genetics, upbringing and psychological factors, including temperament and ability to cope with stress.
- noted an increased risk of narcissistic personality disorder in the child in the event of excessive opekaniya parents or caregivers who idealize the child talents, create a feeling that it is unique.
- The disorder can be caused by traumatic childhood experiences.Narcissism is most often begins in adolescence and early adult life stage when a person's character is formed.
- Many theories of narcissism based on the belief that there are genetic or hereditary factors affecting the development of the disease.At risk are people exposed to the opinions of others.
- huge role in the formation of personality disorder played by the presence of television idols among young people.
- Many psychologists believe that narcissism is a product of our time, and our system of values.The media have contributed to the rapid spread of narcissism in society.
- Sometimes narcissism may be associated with mental illness (such as schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder), when the narcissist is almost completely divorced from reality, considers itself a mediator to communicate with the deity or spirits.
symptoms of narcissism
Research showed a diagnosis of narcissism is much more common among men.A distinctive feature of narcissism is to develop a superiority complex.This includes an exaggeration of their own achievements.
1. Narcissistic have exaggerated (highly developed, exaggerated) feeling of self-importance.
2. Care to fantasies of unlimited success, power, luxury, beauty, or ideal love.
3. Think about what he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by people of high status.
5. Requires excessive admiration from others.
6. manifests itself arrogantly and ambitious in all respects.Sometimes insult or make fun of others evil.
7. Do not empathize and sympathize with others.
8. Often envious of others, and believe that all envy them.
9. Do not take criticism from others
10. Their imaginary achievements and success - it is only a mask for the others, they hide in low self-esteem.
11. There may be excessively opinionated and often on the defensive, but in fact, patients need to protect their exaggerated and fragile ego.
12. They react to conflicting points of view anger or rage.
13. hide their shortcomings, cover their other qualities, or focused on other people's shortcomings, it would divert attention away from their own.
14. They are afraid of their thoughts about their own inferiority.
15. Use of other people to satisfy their desires.
In some cases it is necessary to consult a doctor
Hospitalization of patients with severe narcissistic personality disorder is quite common.
Inpatient treatment is necessary in case of bad motivation for outpatient treatment, when symptoms of the disease chronic, destroying the personality.
most informative in the diagnosis of personality disorders is a structured interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the International Classification of Diseases.Here are some examples of questions:
What do you think, why you deserve a special treatment?
Who do you - do you think deserves your attention?
to whom you are willing to donate their time?
important for you to spend time with a unique and powerful people?
Syndrome Treatment narcissism
Treatment specifically for each case of illness.
Narcissistic patients are trying to maintain the image of perfection that it had an impression on others.Physical illness can destroy this illusion and cause panic feeling that "my world is falling apart.»
Most often, patients take up a defensive position in front of the doctor, demonstrate a sense of superiority and domination over the disease. Tolerates only to doctors older than himself, with an impressiveviews and prestigious institution. However, other members of the health care team, such as nurses or medical orderlies, may be a cause for ridicule. The patient tries to resist the shame and fear, seeks to establish a hierarchical superiority over others. Some scholars interpret the existing conflict relations, as a defensive maneuver.
But there is another approach to the treatment, when the tendency to idealize should initially be treated kindly doctor.
health care workers should demonstrate respect for the patient and to recognize the patient's particularly important so that the narcissist is not strengthened ostentatious sense of pathological grandiosity.
doctor does not need to be a weakness in the presence of the patient, as it may seek to take advantage of this and affect the treatment, exert pressure on medical staff.To help the patient learn to adjust their self-esteem and make it easier for the disease, the therapist gradually establishes real limitations, and then offers options to optimize efforts to combat the disease.
therapist must be aware of the importance of narcissism in the patient's psyche, to recognize the importance of self-aggrandizement, to refrain from criticism, to help the patient so as not to damage his self-esteem.No need to show sympathy for the narcissistic, since he will not be able to understand the manifestation of humanity on the part of the doctor.The therapist must have a good understanding of the basic principles of the formation of the narcissistic type of personality to explain them to the patient.Goals for the conventional therapy should be real, as the source of all problems lies deep in the subconscious.
main task of group therapy - to help the patient develop a healthy individual (rather than a stubborn narcissism) so that patients can recognize other people's personalities.
first step towards cooperation between the therapist and the patient - this is empathy, the patient must learn to feel compassion for the rest of the group.Structuring group therapy helps maintain control over destructive behavior, despite the weakness of the "ego" of the patient.In the group, the therapist less authoritative (is less threatening to destroy the patient's grandiosity).The intensity of the experience is reduced, it becomes more controlled aggression, creates the best conditions to understand the situation of the patient.
Group therapy should include as well and individual sessions with each patient.A patient with narcissistic personality disorder in the course of treatment are often concerned about the preservation of self-esteem.It is very likely that the patient will leave the group at the first sign of "mental exposure" (where the therapist will try to reveal the essence of the disease).
should know that narcissism is often burdened with borderline personality disorder and daffodil needs additional support therapist.
- In adolescence, children are vulnerable, prone to shame and shyness.In order to develop a healthy personality type should be maintained in the child self-esteem and independence from other people's opinions.
- Children need to cry, to express their dissatisfaction.Normally allow them to do so for some time, they should know that not every their need can be satisfied immediately.Necessarily, in an appropriate case, you need to tell the child "no."For urgent needs, of course, this does not apply.
- tells the child that he is the favorite place of the word "beautiful".This way you will avoid vanity.
- Praise the child after he really did something - this is normal.But the frequent and excessive praise will cause an exaggeration of their talents.
- not brag about the achievements of the child in front of him, make sure he does not hear.This may make him feel that he is better than others, and no one can compete with him talent.
- When arguing with your partner, get out into the other room and make sure that the child does not become a witness to a quarrel.
- not practice "good and evil parent" system it can lead to an imbalance of the relationship and hurt his feelings.
- Avoid excessive attention to your child from other family members and friends.It may seem to have a child, that he was the "golden child."Very soon it will begin to feel entitled to everything.
- Children must understand that they live in a society, not society exists for them.
Psychiatrist Kondratenko NA