Substance Abuse - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
There is a group of dependencies, which can develop in anyone, regardless of their individual characteristics or co-morbidities.If a majority of scientists believe that the development of addiction is still important personality of the patient, his environment and social status, then this type of dependence is not revealed special predisposing factors.Very often it is observed in adolescents, it occurs in older people who have a long time to take certain medications.It's about substance abuse.
Substance Abuse - a disease very similar to drug addiction in the mechanism of development and symptoms.The only difference is that the substances that are abused addicts are not included in the list of narcotic drugs.They are produced and sold without the express intervention of the state.
But the consequences of substance abuse is not easier than the consequences of drug addiction.Also, frequent and deaths overdose, seriously undermines the health, crumbling social life of the patient.Thus, the distinction bet
Causes Substance Abuse
reasons for substance abuse is the use of a substance that causes addiction.They are a huge number.Among them there are both drugs and substances which are not used in medicine (eg, organic solvents - acetone, gasoline, glues components).
We look at the most common types of substance abuse.
symptoms of substance abuse
1. dependence on hypnotics .This group includes the abuse of tranquilizers (nitrazepam, Phenazepamum, Relanium) actually sleeping pills (Rohypnol, imovan), antiallergic agents (diphenhydramine) and other drugs with sedative, iesoothing action (phenobarbital, sodium hydroxybutyrate).
Intoxication caused by these substances, like alcohol usual.Externally, the person also gives the impression of a drunk: uncoordinated, unsure gait, slurred speech.Pale skin with greasy touch, dilated pupils, speeded heart rate, blood pressure is reduced.Risk of overdose sedatives and opiates - may be a coma or even death due to respiratory arrest.This kind of abuse sometimes goes unnoticed in the treatment of insomnia.Especially likely painful addiction to hypnotics at self-medication.Also, as with drug addiction, when you stop the drug into the organism, from addicts develop withdrawal symptoms - it is similar to that of alcoholism.There is a tremor, insomnia, headaches, nausea, sweating, redness of the face, weakness.In severe cases, possible seizures.Prolonged abuse of sleeping pills vary patient person.Man becomes diffused, unrestrained, his mood changes for no reason, suffer memory and intelligence.Outwardly people abusing hypnotics, look edematous, their skin gray-green, greasy, pronounced wrinkles.Pupils dilated.Tongue with dirty brown patina, has a hand tremor.Such patients often visit a physician or a neurologist with complaints of poor sleep and asked about the statement of hypnotics.However, they insist on the statement of a certain drug, which have formed a dependency.In case of refusal or the doctor trying to replace medication, patients are irritated, get angry.Insomnia is actually often bothers people suffering from this kind of abuse, but alas - sleeping pills do not help them in restoring sleep.
2. Abuse holinoliticheskimi means .This is a relatively young, but already quite popular form of substance abuse.By anticholinergic agents include drugs such as tsiklodol - it is used to correct the adverse effects of neuroleptics (so this kind of abuse is common among patients of the psychiatrist), diphenhydramine (antiallergic agent), solutan (drug to treat cough) and other
intoxication with these drugs recalls.alcohol.A special feature is the frequent hallucinations, anxiety, confusion.Outwardly, patients appear pale with unhealthy blush on the cheeks and scarlet lips.The muscles of their stiffness, marked involuntary movements and twitching of individual muscles.Unnatural gait (legs hardly bend, spin excessively straightened).The main symptoms of withdrawal symptoms are irritability, sadness, decreased performance, mood swings, sweating, muscle weakness, increased heart rate.
3. abuse of volatile solvents .This type of abuse is most common among teenagers.For intoxication sniffing of volatile organic solvents (glue, petrol, various sprays, household products, paint thinners, toluene, etc.).
Approximately 5 minutes after the release of the substance in the body there is euphoria, elevated mood, a feeling of "floating".Outwardly manifested intoxication blur speech, unsteady gait, often vomiting.This type of abuse is easy to get an overdose of the drug, leading to the development of coma, severe brain damage, maybe even death.Externally addicts look pale, lethargic, drowsy, under the eyes - bruising, pronounced hand tremor.Teenagers begin to lag behind in their studies.Prolonged use of volatile solvents develop dementia.
survey of suspected substance abuse
If a person has changed in the behavior, he developed health problems (fatigue, malaise, blood pressure swings, insomnia), plus everything is seen drinking any medications in doses exceeding therapeutic - likelythat there is substance abuse.In this case, you can not postpone visit to a doctor - a psychiatrist, but rather to the expert in narcology.
Parents should be wary if the child has had problems with behavior and learning, if by chemical smell clothes feel if a child things have paint thinners, glue and other household chemicals.If there is unmotivated weakness, lethargy, headaches, insomnia and other symptoms of malaise and it is not necessary to delay the visit to the specialist.If the concern is only to physical symptoms, you can contact a physician.To determine the state of health is necessary blood tests, urine tests, an electrocardiogram done.
the presence of at least a single convulsive seizure mandatory consultation neurologist and an electroencephalogram.Self-diagnosis of substance abuse
improbable - identifying dependency syndrome not a simple matter.Let it specialist engaged.External symptoms of substance abuse may resemble symptoms of many other diseases (hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, the consequences of traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, etc.).Many mental illnesses begin with lethargy, confusion, sleep disorders (eg, schizophrenia, depression, neuroses, etc.).Put the correct diagnosis can only be a doctor, and he also prescribe the best treatment.
Substance Abuse Treatment Substance Abuse Treatment
has the same principles as the treatment of drug addiction.This removal of the drug, addictive fighting withdrawal symptoms, and treatment of psychological dependence.The first stages of the treatment is better held in a hospital.There is carried out the restoration of the body's functions via detoxification (intravenous drip infusion of different solutions - glucose, isotonic solution, other fluids, normalizing the water-salt balance, for example, reopoligljukin).
also used bracing means - vitamins (group C, B, PP), biostimulants (aloe preparations), nootropic agents (piracetam).For correction use various mental disorders group preparations depending on symptoms.For example, while irritability and aggression helps neuroleptics (sonapaks, neuleptil), when an alarm uses tranquilizers (except, of course, when it is to them formed a relationship, in such a situation, the alarm is possible to stop an antidepressant with an additional anti-anxiety effect, such as gerfonal, sinekvan), with a decrease in sentiment shown antidepressants (amitriptyline, paroxetine, fluoxetine).
After discharge from the hospital is very important receive supportive care and regular monitoring by a doctor, psychiatrist or psychiatrist.At this point, actively used psychotherapy -. Family, individual, group, and other behavioral
self-medication usually leads to disappointing results.Effective means to combat addiction is not represented in folk medicine.Drugs that could be useful in drug addiction, are potent and without prescription confirmed prescription will likely not be able to purchase them.But even if such an opportunity and imagine the unauthorized reception of preparations to bring more harm than benefit.There is a risk not only to get rid of addiction, but also to get the dependence on another drug, in addition to the already available - then it will be about polysubstance (or polydrug use), and this condition is difficult to treat.If the patient is focused on the treatment of herbal preparations, then by agreement with the doctor may, in addition to the basic treatment use different calming charges, such as sleeping pills (lemon balm, mint, valerian, etc.).
When substance abuse reached such a level that the patient is completely absent from the life of society, in addition to the treatment and rehabilitation is also required.Rehabilitation measures may include sessions with a psychologist, therapist, social worker, employment assistance.
When complex effects on disease and cooperation of the patient and his family members with the doctor, the prognosis of substance abuse better than drug addiction.In many cases it is possible to achieve almost complete recovery and good social adaptation.But if time does not seek help, the consequences of substance abuse can be severe.This is the strongest poisoning, and death by overdose.For teenagers abusing volatile organic solvents, there is a real risk of dementia purchase a lifetime.With long-term experience of substance abuse wears out the body - there are chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, liver, and nervous system.Therefore, it is important to identify as early as possible substance abuse, and ideally try to avoid this problem.
Substance Abuse Prevention
reduce the likelihood of addiction helps competently organized leisure school-age children, trusting relationship with their parents, and for the people adults - the avoidance of self-medication, especially insomnia, irritability, anxiety.
Psychiatrist Bochkareva OS