Bronchial asthma is an allergic - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Asthma - one of the most common and severe allergic diseases, included the so-called "big three allergic diseases."The incidence of this disorder is increasing every year.Currently at least 6% of the population have asthma varying severity.This article contains the full information on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this disease and be able to answer many questions patients and their families, and maybe even doctors.
Asthma - a chronic, inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract.The main manifestation of bronchial asthma - reversible (spontaneously or after exposure to drugs) obstruction of the bronchi, which is manifested by suffocation.
first complete description of the disease was made by our compatriot GISokolovsky in 1838. But now the palm in the development of treatments of allergic asthma missed and is currently used in Russia (or should use) protocols written off with international recommendations, such as GINA.
prevalence of asthma - about 6%.Most alarming is
At the heart of the development of asthma is the pathogenetic mechanism of immediate hypersensitivity (IgE-dependent immune response).This is one of the most common mechanisms of allergic and atopic diseases.It is characterized by the fact that from the moment of receipt of the allergen to the development of symptoms of the disease are a matter of minutes.Of course, this applies only to those who already have a sensitization (allergic disposition) to the substance.
example, a patient with asthma and allergies in the wool of a cat comes into the apartment, where he lives a cat, and he starts choking.
an important role in the development of allergic asthma family history plays.So among the next of kin of patients with bronchial asthma patients can be found in 40% of cases and more.In this case, it notes that asthma, as such itself is not transmitted, and the ability to develop allergic reactions in general.
Factors contributing to the emergence of asthma, include the presence of foci of chronic infection (or frequent infections) in the respiratory tract, unfavorable ecology, occupational exposures, smoking, including passive, long-term use of certain drugs.Some authors triggering factors include prolonged contact with aggressive allergens, such as living in the apartment, the walls of which struck molds.
Thus, bronchial asthma - allergic disease in which the exacerbation of the leading role played by contact with allergens.Most often, the disease is caused by allergens coming inhalation: Household (different species of house dust mites, house dust, library dust, feather pillows), pollen, epidermal (wool, animal dander, feathers, fish feed, etc.), fungal.
food allergy as the cause of asthma is extremely rare, but still possible.For food allergies in this case more common cross-allergies.What does it mean?It so happened that some of the allergens of different origin have similar structure.For example, the birch pollen allergens and apples.And if a patient with asthma and the presence of allergy to birch pollen will eat a couple of apples, then he may develop asthma attack.
Asthma may be the last stage of the "atopic march" in children, having in its list of diseases atopic dermatitis.
Symptoms of asthma
The main symptoms of asthma: bouts of wheezing, breathlessness, feeling of wheezing or whistling in the chest.Whistles can be aggravated by deep breathing.A frequent symptom is paroxysmal cough, often dry or discharge of a small clot of phlegm light at the end of the attack.Paroxysmal cough may be the only symptom of asthma.
In moderate and severe asthma severity may experience breathlessness on exertion.Shortness of breath is greatly enhanced by an exacerbation of the disease.
Often, symptoms occur only at the time of an exacerbation of asthma, non-acute clinical picture may be missing.
Exacerbations (asthma) can occur at any time of the day, but the "classic" are nocturnal episodes.The patient may notice that there are factors that cause exacerbation of the disease, for example, being in a dusty environment, contact with animals, conducting cleaning, etc.
In some patients, is especially characteristic of childhood , attacks occur after intense exercise.In this case we speak about asthma physical exertion (the old name) or bronchoconstriction , exercise-induced.
During an exacerbation the patient begins to respond to the so-called non-specific stimuli: pungent smells, temperature and the smell of smoke, etc.This indicates an active inflammatory process in the bronchi and the need to activate the medication.
frequency of exacerbations determined by the type of allergen, to which there is a reaction, and by how often the patient is in contact with him.For example, if you are allergic to pollen plants are clearly worsening season (spring-summer).
When listening to a patient using stethoscope marked weakening of vesicular breathing and the emergence of high (whistling) wheezing.Outside exacerbation auscultatory picture may be unremarkable.
characteristic symptom of asthma is a good effect from taking antihistamines (tsetrin, zirtek, erius, etc.), and especially after inhalation of bronchodilator drugs (salbutamol, Flomax, etc.).
are four degrees of severity of the disease on the basis of symptoms.
1) mild intermittent asthma .Manifestations of the disease are marked less than 1 time per week, night attacks 2 times a month or less.Peak expiratory velocity (PSV), a & gt; 80% of the age norm, fluctuations PSV per day less than 20% (more about this method of investigation in the section IV).
2) mild persistent asthma .Symptoms of the disease are concerned more than 1 time per week, but less than 1 time per day.Frequent exacerbations disrupt daily activities and sleep.Night attacks marked more than 2 times per month.PSV & gt; 80% of predicted, the daily fluctuations of 20-30%.
3) moderate asthma.Symptoms become daily.Exacerbations significantly disrupt daily physical activity and sleep.Night symptoms occur more than 1 time per week.Required daily intake of β2-agonists (salbutamol) Short-acting.PEF 60-80% of the age norm.Fluctuations PSV of more than 30% per day.
4) heavy severity of asthma.Persistent symptoms of asthma.Asthma 3-4 times a day and more frequent exacerbations of the disease, frequent nocturnal symptoms (once in two days and more).Daily physical activity significantly hampered.
most life-threatening symptom of asthma - development of asthma status (status asthmaticus).At the same time develops a prolonged, steady to traditional medication, asthma.Choking expiratory character, that is, the patient can not breathe.Development status asthmaticus accompanied by a breach, and, subsequently, loss of consciousness and severe general condition of the patient.If untreated, a high probability of death.
What tests need to take if you suspect a bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma is in the interests of two medical specialties: allergist-immunologist and pulmonologist.This is a fairly common disease, so it's easy forms usually engaged therapists or pediatricians (depending on the age of the patient).Still, it is better to get to a specialist. important component in the examination of the patient with asthma - identify those allergens, exposure to which causes allergic inflammation.Begin testing susceptibility to household, epidermal, fungal allergens.
detailed list of tests that need to pass a suspected allergic asthma
treatment of allergic asthma
In the treatment of atopic asthma following groups of drugs can be used.Their dosage and duration of treatment combinations determined by the physician, depending on the severity of the disease.Also, the concept of dominant now that the treatment of bronchial asthma should be reviewed every three months.If during this time the disease has been completely compensated, then decide whether to reduce the dosage, if not, then to increase the dose or accession drugs from other pharmacological groups.
Description and dosage regimen for the treatment of allergic asthma
important component in the treatment of allergic asthma - holding the allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT- therapy).The goal - creating immunity to the allergens that cause the patient's allergic reaction and inflammation.This therapy can be carried out only by a doctor allergist.Treatment is carried out without exacerbation, usually in the fall or winter.
To achieve this goal the patient is administered solutions allergens in gradually increasing doses.As a result, tolerance to them is produced.The effect of the treatment of the higher than before treatment started.Taking into account that this is the most radical method of treatment of atopic asthma, you need to motivate patients to as much as possible early start of this treatment.
Treatment of atopic asthma folk remedies.
Allergic diseases - this is a group of diseases in which the means of traditional medicine should be treated with extreme caution.And allergic asthma are no exception.During the work I have witnessed a huge number of exacerbations provoked by these methods.If some way to help your friends (not a fact, incidentally, that it was he who helped, maybe it was a spontaneous remission), it does not mean that it will not cause you complications.
Work out or breathing exercises.This will give a much better effect.
Feeding habits and way of life of the patient with allergic asthma.
Compliance particular lifestyle and creating a hypoallergenic (devoid of allergens) environment - a critical component of the treatment of bronchial asthma.Currently, in many major hospitals set up the so-called school of patients with asthma, where patients are taught just these activities.If you or your child are suffering from this disease, I recommend to look for a school in your town.In addition to the principles of life there gipoallergenngogo taught to control their condition, adjust their own medication, proper use of a nebulizer, etc.
details for how to relieve allergic asthma
allergic asthma in children
Asthma in children can manifest at any age, but more often it happens after a year.Increased risk of developing the disease in children with allergic diseases burdened by heredity, and in patients already mentioned allergic diseases in the past.
Often asthma may hide under the mask of obstructive bronchitis.Therefore, if the child was 4 episodes of obstructive bronchitis (bronchial) for the year - to urgently go to the allergist.
drugs and dosages for the treatment of asthma in a child
allergic asthma and pregnancy.
be carefully carried out measures to eliminate allergens and create a hypoallergenic environment during pregnancy.Always exception of active and passive smoking.
treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
Preparations for the treatment of allergic asthma in pregnancy and during breastfeeding
Possible complications of allergic asthma and forecast
Forecast for life with the right treatment - favorable.With inadequate treatment, abrupt cancellation of drugs - at high risk for status asthmaticus. development of this condition already represents a direct threat to life.
Complications of prolonged uncontrolled asthma may also include the development of emphysema, lung and heart failure.Severe forms of the disease can lead to patient disability.
prevention of allergic asthma
Effective primary prevention, that is, to prevent the disease, unfortunately, not been developed.If an existing problem must be adequate treatment and elimination of allergens, which helps to stabilize the disease and reduce the risk of exacerbations.
Answers to frequently asked questions on allergic asthma:
Does breathing exercises on Strelnikova and Buteyko treatment of asthma?
are diagnosed with asthma.Doctor appointed treatment inhalers (fliksotid) for three months.Symptoms disappeared on the fifth day of treatment.Why take drugs for so long, if the disease does not manifest itself?
The hospital appointed Beclason inhaler.The instructions read that he treat hormonal preparations.Do not use it dangerous?What are the side effects?How can they (these side effects) can be avoided?
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