Bronchitis acute .Chronic Bronchitis - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Bronchitis - an infectious disease, with diffuse inflammation of the bronchi.cough - main symptom of the disease.
If the disease lasts less than three weeks, talking about acute bronchitis.If bronchitis symptoms for at least three months during the year for two years or more can safely diagnose chronic bronchitis.
If the occurrence of the disease is accompanied by shortness of breath, you talk about obstructive bronchitis.
Causes of bronchitis Bronchitis
- an infectious disease.The cause of bronchitis can be bacterial, viral or atypical flora.
main bacterial pathogens of bronchitis : staphylococci, pneumococci, streptococci.
Pathogens viral bronchitis : influenza virus, respiratory syncytial infection, adenovirus, parainfluenza, etc.
Atypical pathogens bronchitis : chlamydia (Chlamydia pneumonia), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pneumonia).They are called atypical due to the fact that in their biological characteristics, they are intermediate between bacteria and viruses.Most of their life cycle,
very rare cause of bronchitis is a fungal infection.
often a combination of different pathogens.For example, the disease starts as a viral infection, and then join the pathogens of bacterial origin.At the same viruses as it opens a gateway for bacteria, create favorable conditions for their reproduction.This current version is the most common, as evidenced by the sharp rise in the incidence in the autumn and winter time, when there is a seasonal spread of viral infections.
necessary condition for the development of bronchitis is to reduce the patient's immune system activity that normally ensures immunity to infectious diseases.
Risk factors for infection is considered to be older than 50 years, smoking, work in harmful conditions of production, frequent hypothermia, alcoholism, chronic diseases of internal organs in the stage of decompensation.
Symptoms of bronchitis
main symptom of bronchitis - cough .The cough may be dry (without sputum discharge) or wet (with sputum).Expectoration of sputum, especially with a green tint - a reliable criterion of bacterial inflammation.Dry cough can occur when a viral infection or atypical.Most often it marked the evolution of cough from dry to wet.In acute disease paroxysmal cough.while coughing attacks can be so severe that are accompanied by a headache.
Symptoms of acute bronchitis
Acute bronchitis is accompanied by a rise in temperature to 38-39 degrees, chills, excessive sweating.There is a general weakness, fatigue and a significant reduction in performance.Severity of symptoms can range from mild to very pronounced.The examination of the patient
attract the scattered wheezes are heard on auscultation and hard breathing.When moderate or severe illness of the patient begin to torment the shortness of breath and chest pain.
Mean duration of acute bronchitis is 10-14 days.Exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, especially in the absence of adequate treatment can last for weeks.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
In chronic bronchitis, cough with scanty expectoration of sputum, shortness of breath on exertion may be permanent symptoms that accompany the patient throughout life.In this case, an exacerbation of bronchitis say if there is a significant strengthening of the above symptoms: increased cough, increased sputum, dyspnea gain, temperature and appearance, etc.
Bronchitis, especially acute, is rarely occurs in isolation.Most often it is combined with the phenomena of rhinitis (runny nose), tracheitis.This definitely affects the overall clinical picture.
What tests need to take when suspected bronchitis
In any case it is necessary to take a blood test for symptoms of bronchitis clinical.If you suspect pneumonia make x-rays, but more often than do without it.
is mandatory submission of sputum analysis (if it is, of course, is) on the color smear microscopy with Gram.Spend sputum cytologic examination with obligatory counting of cellular elements.With prolonged illness, chronic or frequently recurrent bronchitis should make the sputum on the microflora with the obligatory definition of sensitivity to antibiotics.
also make throat swab on the microflora and fungi.
Frequent bronchitis is an indication for blood tests to antibody (immunoglobulin M and G) to atypical infections (Chlamydia pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumonia).
obstructive bronchitis If you want to make spirography (study of respiratory function).In marked decrease in bronchial patency spirography complement sample with bronchodilators (salbutamlom, Ventolin, berodualom etc.).The purpose of this study - to determine the reversibility of the pathological changes and avoid possible co-morbidities such as asthma.
Frequent acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis are the indication for bronchoscopy .The goal - to identify related lung diseases that can cause similar symptoms of bronchitis.
recurrent bronchitis require that X-ray examination.First of all do FLG (chest X-rays) or X-rays.The most informative method of X-ray examinations - computer tomography.
Treatment of bronchitis Bronchitis
- quite a serious disease, bronchitis treatment the doctor should hold it.It determines the optimal treatments for bronchitis, their dosage and combination.Under the guise of bronchitis can occur a number of diseases, delayed diagnosis and improper treatment of which can have very unfortunate consequences.
mode bed with bronchitis or polupostelny."Heroes" who are trying to move the disease on their feet, have all chances to earn heart complications or make acute bronchitis chronic.
The basis of treatment of bronchitis is the use of anti-infective drugs.
The first, most important, place are antibacterial agents.For first-line drugs include penicillin derivatives (drugs: flemoklav, flemoksin, augmentin, etc.) and macrolides (medicines: macrofoams, fromilid, azithromycin, Hemomitsin, Rovamycinum, vilprafen).For second-line drugs include cephalosporins (drugs: supraks, cefixime, cefazolin, cephalexin, klaforan, tsefataksim, Fortum, ceftazidime, cefepime, ceftriaxone, Rocephin), respiratory fluoroquinolones (sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin).In mild to moderate disease is preferable to use dosage forms for oral administration (tablets, suspension, syrup, etc.), a severe form - the only possible route of administration - injection.Sometimes they combine both methods of administering drugs.
case of suspected viral aetiology (cause of) bronchitis - must be supplemented by antiviral treatment.The most available drugs are broad-spectrum viferon, Genferon, kipferon.Dosages depend on the age of the patient.The duration of at least 10 days.
mandatory for treatment of bronchitis is the appointment expectorant drugs.Currently, the pharmacies presented a huge number of drugs in this pharmacological group: ACC, Fluimucil, Lasolvan, mukaltin, ambroxol, libeksin-muko, flyuditek, bromhexine, etc.production: tablets for oral use, syrups, effervescent tablets, powders.Dosages depend on the age and weight of the patient.
Separately want to highlight drug Erespal (fenspirid).It possesses both bronchodilatory and antiinflammatory action.Available in tablet form and syrup form.Treatment of at least 10 days.It may be assigned even to children up to 1 year.
Have shortness of breath bronchitis is a direct indication for the use of bronchodilator drugs.They are available in tablet (aminophylline, teopek, teotard), and inhalation forms (aerosol inhalation: Flomax, berotek, salbutamol).
possible to use for the treatment of bronchitis drugs combined.For example, syrup Ascoril combines the properties of an expectorant and bronchodilator drugs.
Popular home remedies for treatment, such as production of cans, mustard plasters, are not effective in bronchitis.
possible use in the treatment of complex multivitamin complexes.
Features of diet and lifestyle in bronchitis
Against the background of acute bronchitis is traditionally recommended to drink plenty.For an adult - the daily fluid intake should be at least 3 - 3.5 liters.Generally well tolerated alkaline juice, hot milk with mineral water in the ratio 1: 1.
daily diet should contain adequate amounts of protein and vitamins.Against the background of a high temperature and general intoxication can starve a bit (if the body of this, of course, requires), but in general any restrictive diets are contraindicated in such patients.
high efficiency shows the use of inhaled via nebulizer.As a solution for inhalation can be used mineral water, Ringer's solution or normal saline.Procedures performed 2-3 times a day for 5-10 days.These manipulations promotes discharge moktroty facilitate drainage of the bronchial tree, reduce inflammation.
necessary lifestyle correction to eliminate risk factors for infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract.In particular this applies to smoking, and various types of occupational hazards (dusty production, working with paints, frequent hypothermia, etc.).
excellent effect in chronic lung diseases is the use of breathing exercises, for example, Strelnikova method.This also applies to chronic bronchitis.
Beyond acute bronchitis can host events for hardening.
bronchitis Treatment folk remedies
very popular folk remedy for the treatment of bronchitis - steam inhalation .It is recommended to breathe the steam formed during the cooking of potatoes, etc.Some of this method when used carefully, of course, it helps, but often its use causes the burn mucous membranes and the subsequent exacerbation of bronchitis flow.
possible means of treatment for bronchitis herbal fees.Most often used for treating bronchitis following herbs and their combination: thyme, licorice, oregano, lime, the mother-and-stepmother, plantain.To prepare the broth 1 tablespoon of the mixture pour ½ liter of boiling water and insist 2 hours.Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day.The course of treatment 7-10 days.The method is really effective in treatment of chronic bronchitis .
Drinking koumiss or goat's milk in the treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis : recommend to use at least 1 cup milk 3-4 times a day - long.No reliable data on the effectiveness of this method, I have not seen.
Use a mixture of onion with honey in the ratio 1: 1, passed through a meat grinder under the scheme: 1 tablespoon - 2 times a day 10-14 days.Sometimes, instead of onion recommend the use of garlic.A number of patients did have an effect in the majority - noted the aggravation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.Possibly, the side effects of the method can be avoided by reducing the content in the mixture of onion.
Bronchitis in children
bronchitis in children has the same symptoms as adults.The main symptom of bronchitis in children - cough.Symptoms of intoxication with bronchitis in children is usually very pronounced.If possible, should refrain from excessive use of antibacterial agents.
When the child has shortness of breath should always be a differential diagnosis with asthma.Three or four episodes of obstructive bronchitis a year - a clear indication to consult an allergist and holding the allergen-diagnosis.
When treatment of bronchitis in children preference should be given by inhalation therapy.Babies spend inhalations with mineral water, expectorant (Lasolvan, Fluimucil) and bronchodilators (Flomax, Atrovent) medications.If necessary, can be used for inhalation antibacterials (tobramycin solution dioxidine 0.5% solution furatsilin 0.02% solution).This method of treatment can effectively deal with the symptoms and the cause of bronchitis and has a minimum of side effects.
symptoms of bronchitis in pregnant women do not differ from bronchitis symptoms in other categories of patients.The main symptom of bronchitis is a cough also.
But the treatment has a number of features, since many drugs are prohibited for use in this period of life because of their potential adverse effects on the fetus.For example, prohibited the use of derivatives of tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol.With careful use aminophylline.From
approved antimicrobials like to mention vilprafen.The drug with a high safety profile and sufficient antibacterial activity.
in treating bronchitis in pregnant women focus on inhalation therapy.
Possible complications of bronchitis and forecast
course of acute diseases are generally favorable and ends with a full cure.Sometimes bronchitis can be complicated by pneumonia, bronchiectasis.Chronic bronchitis
without appropriate treatment can lead to respiratory or cardiac failure.
There are several approaches to the prevention of infectious disease.
1) Admission immunoukreplyayuschih preparations for the season of possible exacerbation (autumn-winter).This method is most suitable for patients with chronic bronchitis or acute bronchitis frequent exacerbations.
good effect in this regard have shown drugs bronhomunal, ribomunil, IRS-19, etc.Schemes and dosages determined by the doctor.
to variants of non-specific immunomodulation may also include regular intake of multivitamin complexes.
2) Vaccination of patients.
Given the high prevalence of pneumococcal disease and its enormous contribution to the emergence of the disease, most experts recommend that patients at risk groups vaccinated vaccine Pniewy-23, providing the immune defense precisely from this type of pathogen.Effect of vaccination lasts for 5 years.
also taking into account the fact that it is a viral infection most often triggering factor for the development of bronchitis, recommended annual vaccination of people belonging to the group of influenza virus.
Whom can be attributed to the risk?The first is people over 50, patients with chronic diseases of internal organs (heart, lungs, kidneys, etc.).Traditionally vaccinated women planning a pregnancy and those whose professional activity is related to communication with people (health workers, teachers, salesmen, etc.).Mandatory vaccinations for people receiving long-term anticoagulative drugs (aspirin, warfarin, etc.).
3) Compliance with the basic rules of personal hygiene, such as frequent hand washing, the use of disposable handkerchiefs - a fairly simple way of preventing infectious diseases.
Answers to frequently asked questions about bronchitis acute and chronic:
How effective breathing exercises for bronchitis?
Breathing exercises, for example, by the method of Strelnikova and Buteyko - an essential component of treatment, especially in chronic bronchitis.
I suspect that I have allergic bronchitis.Is that possible?
This diagnosis is allergic bronchitis does not exist.Perhaps the development of infectious disease on the background of asthma.