Respiratory Tract Infections - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Respiratory Diseases


Causes Symptoms of respiratory infection
Complications
diagnosis of lesions of respiratory tract infections
Treatment Prevention

occupy a leading place in the infectious diseases of various organs and systems are traditionally the most widespread among the population.Respiratory infections of various etiologies sick each year every man, and some of them more than once a year.Despite the prevailing myth of the favorable course of the majority of respiratory infections, we must not forget that pneumonia (pneumonia) has been ranked among the causes of deaths from infectious diseases, as well as one of the five common causes of death.

Respiratory Tract Infections - an acute infectious disease arising from getting infectious agents via aerogenic infection mechanism, ie non-contagious, affecting the respiratory departments of both primary and secondary, accompanied by inflammatory phenomena and the characteristic clinical symptoms.

The causes of respiratory tract infections

Pathogens respiratory in

fections are divided into groups of etiological factor:

1) Bacterial causes (pneumococci and other streptococci, staphylococci, mycoplasma, pertussis bacillus, meningococcus, the causative agent of diphtheria, mycobacterium, and others).
2) Viral causes (influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, rotaviruses, herpes viruses, measles virus, mumps, and others).
3) Fungal causes (fungi of the genus of Candida, Aspergillus, actinomycetes).

Respiratory Tract Infections

source of infection - a sick person or carrier of an infectious agent.Infectious period for respiratory tract infections often starts with the onset of symptoms.

mechanism infection aerogenic including airborne pathway (contamination by contact with the patient by inhalation of aerosol particles by sneezing or coughing), airborne dust (inhalation of dust particles contained therein infectious agents).In some infections of the respiratory system due to the stability of the pathogen in the environment are irrelevant factors of transmission - related items that fall on patient selection when coughing or sneezing (furniture, scarves, towels, dishes, toys, hands, etc.).These factors are relevant to the transmission of infection to diphtheria, scarlet fever, mumps, tonsillitis, tuberculosis.

infection mechanism of infection of the respiratory

susceptibility to respiratory pathogens general, infected persons may, from early childhood to the elderly, but the feature is the massive coverage of a group of children of the first years of life.No, depending on the gender, suffer equally by both men and women.

There is a group of risk factors for respiratory tract disease:

1) resistance (resistance) of the entrance gate of infection, the degree of which have a significant impact
frequent colds, chronic processes in the upper respiratory tract.
2) Overall responsiveness of the human body - the presence of immunity to a particular infection.Playing the role of the presence of
vaccination under controlled infections (pneumococcus, pertussis, measles, mumps), seasonally-preventable diseases (influenza) vaccination on epidemic indications (in the first days after contact with the patient).
3) Natural factors (hypothermia, humidity, wind).
4) Presence of secondary immunodeficiency due to underlying chronic diseases
(CNS pathology, lung, diabetes, liver disease, cancer, and other processes).
5) Age-related factors (at risk of pre-school age children and the elderly
over 65 years).

Infections of the respiratory tract, depending on the distribution in the human body have a conditional division into four groups:

1) Respiratory Infections with reproduction of the pathogen in the entrance gate of infection, that is, in a place of introduction (the whole band SARS, whooping cough, measles, etc.).
2) respiratory tract infections with the introduction of a place - the respiratory tract, but with hematogenous spread of the pathogen in the body and its reproduction in the affected organs (so develop mumps, meningococcal infection, viral encephalitis, pneumonia of different etiology).
3) Infections of the respiratory tract, followed by hematogenous spread and secondary lesions of the skin and mucous membranes - and enanthema rash (chickenpox, smallpox, leprosy), and respiratory syndrome is not typical in the symptoms of the disease.
4) respiratory tract infections with oropharyngeal lesions and mucous membranes (diphtheria, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, and others).

brief anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract

Respiratory system consists of upper and lower respiratory tract.The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, paranasal sinuses (maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, ethmoid labyrinth, sphenoid sinus), part of the oral cavity, pharynx.The lower respiratory tract includes the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lung (alveoli).The respiratory system provides the gas exchange between the human body and the environment.The function of the upper respiratory puteny is warming and disinfection of air into the lungs, and direct gas exchange is easy.

Diagram of the respiratory system

Infectious diseases of the respiratory tract anatomical structures include:
- rhinitis (inflammation of the lining of the nose);sinusitis, sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses);
- sore throat or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils);
- pharyngitis (throat inflammation);
- laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx);
- tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea);
- bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi);
- pneumonia (inflammation of lung tissue);
- alveolitis (inflammation of the alveoli);
- combined lesion of the respiratory tract (called acute respiratory viral infections and acute respiratory disease, in which there laryngotracheitis, bronchitis and other syndromes).

symptoms of respiratory tract infections

incubation period for respiratory tract infections varies from 2-3 days to 7-10 days depending on the pathogen.

Rhinitis - inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal passages.The mucosa becomes edematous, inflamed, it can be with the release of exudate without it.Infectious rhinitis is a manifestation of acute respiratory viral infections and acute respiratory infections, diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, and other infections.Patients complain of nasal discharge or rhinorrhea (rhinovirus infection, influenza, parainfluenza, etc.) Or stuffy nose (adenoviral infection, infectious mononucleosis), sneezing, tearing and discomfort, sometimes a little temperature.Acute infectious rhinitis is always two-way.Nasal discharge may have a different character.For viral infection characterized by clear liquid, sometimes thickish discharge (the so-called serous-mucous rhinorrhea), and for a bacterial infection with purulent mucus component of yellow or greenish, cloudy (mucopurulent rhinorrhea).Infectious rhinitis rarely occurs in isolation in most cases quickly joined by other symptoms of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, or skin.

Inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sinusitis).Most have a secondary character that is developed after the defeat of the nasopharynx.Most of the lesions associated with a bacterial cause of respiratory tract infections.When sinusitis and ethmoiditis patients complain of a stuffy nose, nasal breathing difficulty, general malaise, runny nose, temperature reaction, violation of the sense of smell.At the front of the patients concerned bursting sensation in the nose, headaches in the frontal region more in a vertical position, thick nasal discharge purulent character, fever, slight cough, and weakness.

Where is the sinus and the name of its inflammation

angina (tonsillitis) can be either viral or bacterial etiology.Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the oropharynx in the tonsils.Patients concerned about pain in the throat when swallowing (with the exception of diphtheria when the minor pain), difficulty in drinking, eating, fever, general weakness.When viewed from oropharyngeal mucosa hyperemic (flushed), a small swelling of the throat (the exception - diphtheria, where the swelling can be significant and dangerous symptom in terms of a toxic form of the disease), tonsils increase in size up to 1-3 degrees, depending on the severity of the process,on the tonsils appear imposing.If catarrhal process, the tonsils relief is smoothed and overlays not the same picture with viral sore throats.If it is purulent tonsillitis, the imposition of purulent greenish-yellowish, friable, easily removed with a spatula, located in the tonsils lacunas or all surfaces (exception - diphtheria, in which the imposition of a grayish white, dense, hard shot spatula, leaving a bleeding surface).In the process of fungal overlay on the tonsils look like curds, whitish-gray color, easy to remove with a spatula from the surface of enlarged tonsils, often extended to the sky, the language.With the spread of the overlay may extend beyond the boundaries of the tonsils.

Viral tonsillitis

purulent tonsillitis

Diphtheria

Pharyngitis - inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa.More often combined with other symptoms, but also found in isolation.Patients complain of a tickle in the throat, low-grade temperature, or lack thereof, a dry cough, which is sometimes quite painful, shortness of breath, malaise.Pharyngitis is a manifestation of many SARS, particularly influenza, parainfluenza, scarlet fever, measles.

Laryngitis - inflammation of the throat, and sometimes the epiglottis, vocal cords.It may be a manifestation of a variety of respiratory infections (influenza, parainfluenza, whooping cough, scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, etc.).Patients laryngitis is characterized by general malaise in the background and the appearance of temperature hoarseness, roughness and hoarseness until the loss of voice, barking cough, shortness of breath.Danger of laryngitis that may develop complications - croup or laryngeal stenosis - sudden breathing problems due to swelling of the mucosa and narrowing of the lumen of the larynx and laryngeal spasm of muscles.Croup can be true (diphtheria), which develops gradually after the onset of symptoms of diphtheria, and false (parainfluenza), when in the background of SARS in the child during the night there is a dramatic difficulty in breathing.And in fact, and in another case an urgent need to call a doctor.

Tracheitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea - the tube that connects the throat to the main bronchi.Tracheitis - the main clinical syndrome with influenza, but may occur and bacterial infections.Patients concerned about symptoms of intoxication (fever, general weakness and malaise), Sore pain in the upper part of the chest behind the breastbone, the appearance of a dry night and morning cough, and during the day to provoke cough stimuli - conversation, laughter, cold air, deep breaths.When combined laryngotracheitis can grow hoarse voice.Often the cough is dry, but the accession of bronchitis may be a viscous sputum character as mucous (viral nature) and purulent (bacterial process).

Bronchitis - inflammation of the bronchial mucosa.Bronchitis accompanies the majority of respiratory infections and general symptoms of intoxication manifested, perhaps preceded by symptoms of upper respiratory tract, and is characterized by the appearance of cough in patients both dry and wet with expectoration mucus or muco-purulent character.

Pneumonia - inflammation of the lung tissue, the bulk of which is caused by bacteria, such as pneumococcus, but there are also other etiologies of pneumonia.The main complaints are fever from low grade to a febrile, increasing weakness, loss of appetite, chills and sweating, malaise, worse cough productive nature (with phlegm).The character of sputum will depend entirely on the cause of the disease (in more detail in the article: pneumonia).

Pneumonia

alveolitis - inflammation of the terminal respiratory tract that can occur with candidiasis, legionella, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, Q fever and other infections.Patients appear pronounced cough, shortness of breath, cyanosis in the background temperature, weakness.The end result may be a fibrosis of the alveoli.

alveolitis

respiratory infections Complications

authorities complications of respiratory infections can develop when protracted process, the absence of adequate medical therapy and later to see a doctor.This could be the croup syndrome (false and true), pleurisy, pulmonary edema, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, polyneuropathy.

diagnosis of respiratory tract infections

Diagnosis is based on the combined analysis of the development (history) diseases, epidemiological history (previous contact with a patient respiratory tract infections), clinical data (or data of objective examination), laboratory confirmation.

total differential diagnostic search is reduced to the division of viral infections of the respiratory tract and bacterial. So, for viral infections of the respiratory system characterized by the following symptoms:

• acute onset and rapid rise in temperature to febrile digits, depending on the severity of the form
expressed symptoms of intoxication - myalgia, malaise, weakness;
• development of rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis with the secretions of mucous character,
transparent, watery, sore throat without overlaps;
• an objective examination often reveals injection sclera vessels, point
hemorrhagic elements in the mucous throat, eyes, skin, pasty face, at auscultation - hard breathing and no wheezing.Availability wheezing usually accompanies joining secondary bacterial infection.

When bacterial respiratory tract infections found:
• sub-acute or gradual onset of the disease, not sharp rise in temperature up to 380 rarely
above, slightly pronounced symptoms of intoxication (weakness, fatigue);
• isolation of the bacterial infection are thick, viscous, acquire
color from yellowish to brownish-green, cough different numbers;
• objective examination shows superimposed on purulent tonsils, auscultation
dry or mixed wet rales.

Laboratory diagnosis of respiratory tract infections:

1) Complete blood count changes at any acute respiratory tract infections: increased white blood cells, ESR,
for a bacterial infection characterized by increasing the number of neutrophils, receiving stab inflammatory shift to the left (increase rods with respect to segmented neutrophils), lymphopenia;for viral infections as shifts in leykoformule are characterized by lymphocytosis and monocytosis (increase of lymphocytes and monocytes).The extent of violations of the cellular composition depends on the type and severity of the current respiratory infection.
2) Specific tests for the identification of the causative agent of the disease: an analysis of the mucus of the nose and throat to
viruses, as well as the flora with definition of sensitivity to certain drugs;analysis of sputum on flora and antibiotic sensitivity;bakposev mucus in the throat BL (bacillus Leffler - the causative agent of diphtheria), and others.
3) If you suspect a specific infection blood samples on serological tests for the detection of antibodies
and their titles, which are typically taken in the dynamics.
4) Instrumental methods of examination: laryngoscopy (
determine the nature of the inflammation of the mucous larynx, trachea), bronchoscopy, X-ray examination of the lungs (identifying the nature of the process in bronchitis, pneumonia, inflammation of the degree distribution of the dynamics of treatment).